Apolonia Ancient Art offers ancient Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Pre-Columbian works of art Apolonia Ancient Art
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All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1278504
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,265.00
This rare piece is a Roman iron javelin head that dates circa 3rd-4th century A.D. This piece is approximately 5.7 inches long, and is a complete example. This piece has a barbed "spiked tang" head at the end, and a rounded lead weight attached to the shaft about 3.5 inches from the end of this formable weapon. This piece has an exceptional dark brown patina, is in superb condition, and is preserved with a wax sealant which has preserved the iron shaft. There are also some spotty dark brown and white calcite mineral deposits seen mostly on the lead weight. This weapon was also known as a "hasta plumbata", meaning "leaded spear", or as referred to by the ancient source Vegetius, as a "martiobarbalus", meaning "Mars-barb". (See Vegetius, "Epitoma Rei Militaris", translated by N.P. Milner, Liverpool University Press, 1993.) Another ancient source, the "De Rebus Bellicus", M.W.C. Hassall and R.T. Ireland (eds), 1979, Oxford, describes the "plumbata Mamillata", meaning "breasted javelin", as a javelin with a lead weight and a pointed iron head, with flights attached to the opposite end of the shaft. The epithet 'breasted' likely refers to the bulbous lead weight. This lead weight was also molded onto and around the iron shaft, and was solidly attached to the shaft. This type of weapon is rare, as only a few examples have been recovered from the British Isles, notably Wroxeter; and even fewer examples have been found in Germany, notably Augst and Castell Weissenberg, and Lorch, Austria. However, the ancient source Vegetius, (1.17), does state that two Illyrican legions were renamed "Martiobarbuli Ioviani" and "Martiobarbuli Herculiani" by the joint emperors Diocletian and Maximianus because of their proficiency with this weapon. He further states that five "plumbatae" were carried by a soldier in the concavity of his shield, and they were thrown at first charge, or used to defend with the reserves and could penetrate the body or foot of the assailant. This weapon was also thought to easily penetrate shields because of the lead weight, and could be thrown at great distance. Vegetius, (1.17), further states that soldiers using the "plumbata" take the place of archers, "for they wound both the men and the horses of the enemy before they come within reach of the common missle weapons". This weapon was truly an innovation in Roman battle tactics, and is a weapon that is seldom seen on the market today, as it was made from iron which easily deteriorates in mineralized soils. Another rare piece of this type is seen in "The Late Roman Army" by Pat Southern and Karen Dixon, Yale University Press, 1996, p. 114, Fig. 46. A custom display stand is also included. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1990's. (Note: Addition documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pottery : Pre AD 1000 item #1254565
Apolonia Ancient Art
$875.00
This interesting piece is a Recuay culture standing warrior that dates to the Early Intermediate Period, circa 400 B.C.-300 A.D., and the Recuay culture was centered in the Northern Peruvian Highlands, Callejon de Huaylas Valley. This piece is approximately 5.8 inches high by 4.2 inches in diameter, and is in intact condition, save for some minor stress cracks that appear to be filled at the base. This piece was made with a "resist-decoration" technique, and is a thin-walled white/cream colored kaolin clay with red-orange, yellow, and black colored line-drawn highlights. This piece also has some attractive light brown burnishing, and some spotty black mineral deposits. This piece shows a very animated figure that appears to be a standing warrior, as he is seen wearing a helmet and probable body armor, which is built into the round and portly design of the main body of the vessel. This figure also appears to be holding some objects in each hand, and the object in his right hand may be a round fruit which he is seen lifting to his wide mouth. The artistic style of this piece is also very geometric in it's design, and the lower legs and feet of this warrior are also designed in high relief at the base of the vessel. This piece also has the typical single spout which is wide and funnel shaped, and is integrated in width and height relative to the head of the warrior, which makes it to be somewhat imperceptible at first glance. It is also likely that the Recuay were a satellite people of the Mochica, and perhaps were guardians of sacrificial llamas and were an elite group of warriors. The ceramic offered here may also have been designed with additional ceramics, which made up a group scene that was created as a ceremonial grave offering. (For the culture and the warrior-type ceramics, see A. Lapiner, "Pre-Columbian Art of South America", New York, 1976, pp. 167-169.) A scarce piece with nice eye appeal. Ex: Dr. Ernst J. Fischer collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1230562
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This piece is an extremely rare Greek iron spearpoint that also has its accompanying butt-spike. This piece dates to the Hellenistic period, circa 4th century B.C., and is intact in superb condition. The condition is remarkable, given the fact that this weapon is made from iron and not bronze. The metal is compact with very little flaking, and is in very stable and solid condition, as this complete piece has an hardened earthen over glaze and is in its natural "as found" condition. There are very few ancient Greek iron weapons that have survived from antiquity that are in the superb condition seen here, as the hardened earthen glaze has preserved these pieces. The spearpoint and the butt-spike are both approximately 12.5 and 8 inches long, and both have a shank end diameter of approximately .75 inches. This weapon was finely made, and the butt-spike has a square designed tip which transitions into a rounded shank. The shanks of both the spearpoint and the butt-spike have fine hammered workmanship. This weapon probably had a wooden shaft that was approximately 10-12 feet long, and was better suited for a cavalryman, rather than an infantryman, who often carried a heavier lance known as a "sarissa". The shaft was also likley tapered, and was thinner at the back end of the shaft which would save weight for the weapon. In this case, the cavalryman could ground the weapon with the butt-spike, and also could turn the weapon around in case the spearpoint broke in battle. The piece offered here has a slight curve in the blade, and this likely occurred in battle as well. The butt-spike also allowed the cavalryman to hold the shaft near the weapon's center of gravity, as both the spearpoint and the butt-spike weigh nearly the same. This piece dates to the period of Philip II, who was king of Macedonia circa 359-336 B.C., and this military genius transformed his army with many innovative weapons and battle tactics. The weapon offered here is one such weapon, as the finest weapons during the Hellenistic period were forged from iron. (For the Hellenistic Greek weapon types see "Greece and Rome at War", by Peter Connolly, United Kingdom, 1998.) This piece is extremely rare and is seldom seen in this condition on todays market. Ex: Private German collection. (Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Bronze : Pre AD 1000 item #1262216
Apolonia Ancient Art
$3,265.00
This extremely rare piece is a complete Greek bronze mitra piece that dates to the Geometric Period, circa 8th-7th century B.C. This piece is approximately 5.1 inches high by 7.25 inches wide, is intact with no repair/restoration, and is complete save for a small missing tip of one side. This piece was designed to be suspended from a belt, and likely hung below the rim of a bronze bell corselet. The shape of this piece also suggests that it protected the stomach and lower abdomen, and perhaps each side of the hips as well, with more than one piece attached to a leather belt. There are two holes seen at each end of the central stem which likely held rings that attached to the leather belt. This method of attachment allowed this piece to freely move at the bottom, and allowed the warrior ease of movement as this piece was able to move with the body. According to Herbert Hoffmann in "Early Cretan Armorers", Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1972, pp. 9-10: "The Cretan mitra was designed to be suspended from a belt and to hang below the rim of the bell corselet. The total absence from the find of anything that might be identified as part of a metal belt suggests that the mitrai were worn from a belt of perishable material. Most examples are semicircular sheets of bronze 5 to 7.5mm thick, varying in height from 12.5 to 18 cms. and in breadth from 21.5 to 29.5 cms. The edges of their wide flat rims are sometimes rolled over a bronze wire, the straight upper edge being rolled outward and the edge of the crescent inward. Three holes are punched in the sheet metal near the top edge, one at the center and one at each end, to accommodate rings from which the mitra was suspended. The function of these bronze plates as stomach protectors was recognized by Furtwangler when he published the first examples discovered at Olympia. F. Poulsen gave them the Homeric name 'mitra' in his publication of the specimen from Rethymnon, and the term has had archaeological respectability ever since (although what sort of body armor Homer meant is highly debatable). In endeavoring to define the role played by mitrai in Greek combat we must take into account their geographical distribution. This form of armor is to date documented only from Crete, Thrace, and Etruria - three regions of the ancient world noted for their archers. It seems likely that mitrai were meant to protect their wearers against arrows, i.e. that they were worn by hoplites frequently exposed to archery attack." (An example published by Hoffmann in the reference noted above, pl. 40, no. 3, is slightly larger than the example offered here, has three suspension rings, and has a half crescent shape. See attached photo.) The piece offered here has a slightly different design than the known examples published by Hoffmann in the reference noted above, and the design of this piece may point to Cyprus, and if this is the case, the piece offered here may be one of the earliest examples of it's type, and pre-dates the published Hoffmann examples that date circa mid to late 7th century B.C. The inside of the exceptional piece offered here also likely had a leather liner, and/or had a thick leather pad which attached to the additional perimeter holes seen on this piece. This piece also has fine workmanship, as there are raised punched round knobs that are seen running around the perimeter of the piece. These knobs, besides being very decorative, also add strength to the overall piece. This piece has a beautiful light green patina with some heavy dark green and blue mineralization, along with some white calcite deposits, and the patina and mineral deposits are also heavier on the backside of this piece. Greek armor from this early period is extremely rare, and even fragments from this period are seldom seen on the market. This piece is attached to a custom stand and can easily be removed. Ex: M. Waltz collection, Germany, circa 1970's. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1330096
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,365.00
These seven Greek gold button studs date to the Hellenistic Period, circa 4th-3rd century B.C. These pieces are approximately .4 inches in diameter, by .23 inches deep, and together weigh 4.1 gms. These pieces have an identical design and size, and all have a raised "half-moon" type shape. The back half of these pieces all have a raised round "attachment tube", with a hole through each side of the tube, and this design served as an attachment point for each button. These pieces were likely attached to a leather or wood backing that may have been part of a Greek scabbard, sword hilt, breastplate, or shield. These pieces are very decorative, and gave a very impressive look to any of the weapons noted above. Greek gold armor studs are seldom seen on the market, and these seven pieces are scarce to rare examples. These pieces are very finely made, and were produced by an artisan with a great deal of skill. These pieces are all intact, and have a light yellow patina. These complete pieces are all solid, and can easily be worn today in a necklace, a pendant, or women into a garment. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that these pieces are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1366390
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,625.00
This attractive piece is a standing Nayarit warrior that dates circa 100 B.C.- 250 A.D., and is approximately 11.2 inches high. This warrior is seen wearing a helmet and barrel armor, and is holding a club with both hands at the front of his body. There appears to be a strap that is seen passing between his legs, along with a belt around his waist which may have supported the barrel armor seen on his upper torso. This armor is also seen wrapping around his body, and the helmet has several knobs at the top that offered added protection. He is also seen wearing earrings, along with a small nose ring. The barrel armor was also designed where the warrior could duck down into the barrel, and the helmet would then seal at the top of the barrel and protect his entire upper body, neck, and head from spear and/or arrow attack. The warrior has a very expressive face, and appears to be smiling while fulfilling his role as a protector of the deceased, and in addition, this piece may also represent the deceased as well. The facial expression seen on this piece is also more animated than most Nayarit examples of this type. This piece is also a light tan terracotta, and has no repair/restoration. A choice example that is in superb condition. Ex: Dr. Gunther Marschall collection, Hamburg, Germany, circa 1980's. Ex: Private German collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including a TL authentication test document from Kotalla Lab, no. 40R270317, and EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Stone : Pre AD 1000 item #1162134
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,265.00
This interesting piece is an Aztec flint blade which dates circa 1400-1525 A.D. This piece is approximately 6.3 inches high by 2.5 inches wide. This piece is intact, save for a minute chip at one end, and has a beautiful light brown patina with some spotty black mineral deposits. This piece has a small hole near the center of the piece, and this hole is full of minute crystals which are imbedded in the inner cavity, and run to the outer edge of the hole on each side of the piece. It's quite possible that the small hole with crystals was formed from constant mineral drippings, as this piece may have been a ceremonial offering that was buried in a cave or underground tomb. It is interesting to note that the crystals not only extend to the outer edge on each side of the hole, but also over both edges on each side of the piece, and onto the outer carved/chipped planes of the outer flat surfaces near the edge of each side of the hole. This is an indication that the crystal mineralization, and the hole seen on this piece, developed after this piece was carved and buried. The patina and the mineralization are also excellent indicators which go far in establishing the authenticity of this piece, and there are many forgeries of this type of piece that have been on the market. The carving of this piece is exceptional and very well detailed as well, as one can easily see that the carved/chipped planes become smaller towards the edge of the piece, and this forms a blade of elliptical form that has extremely sharp edges. Aztec blades of this type have been used as a lance or knife blade, but the piece offered here was likely used only in a votive context. The flint stone of this piece is also semi-translucent, and according to Eduardo Matos Moctezuma in "The Great Temple of the Aztecs: Treasures of Tenochtitlan", Thames and Hudson Pub., London, 1988, p. 97: "Many objects of flint and obsidian, locally available raw materials, were also made by the Aztec artisans to be deposited in caches. Flint was most frequently chipped into knives and blades. Some of these knives were decorated with with bits of shell and stone mosaic to form little faces in profile, resembling representations of the flint day sign in the Borbonicus. Similarly, obsidian (a volcanic glass) was chipped to form knives and blades with sharp cutting edges, but it was also carefully worked and polished into miniature imitations, such as small heads and rattles of the rattlesnake. Obsidian is an extremely dense and glassy stone, and is a difficult material to work; such miniatures attest to the skill of the Aztec craftsmen. While flint and obsidian implements symbolically and functionally evoke sacrifice and death, more overt evidence of ritual acts can be found in the numerous examples of worked crania. Sometimes a flint knife is placed between the teeth, like a tongue projecting from a grinning mouth, at other times another knife is inserted into the nasel cavity to create an animated image of death. We do not know wheather these objects were used as masks in rituals, or wheather they were made as symbols of death and sacrifice to be placed in offerings." (See attached photo from the text above, p. 98, ill. 80, of a skull mask with two analogous flint blades such as the example offered here.) The piece offered here was likely cermonial and was votive, but in exactly what context it was used, that is not certain, but whatever the case, the piece offered here is an extremely interesting and rare example of the type. This piece also comes with a custom wooden display stand, and can easily be removed. Ex: Private North Carolina collection, circa 1990's. Ex: H. Rose collection, New York. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1243639
Apolonia Ancient Art
$2,365.00
This massive and extremely rare piece is a Greek iron sarissa spear head that dates to the Hellenistic period, circa 4th century B.C., and is approximately 22.5 inches long by 2 inches wide at the blades mid point. This piece is intact, and is in superb condition with a hardened earthen over glaze which has helped to preserve this extremely rare iron weapon. The metal seen on this piece is for the most part very compact with very little flaking, and is in very stable and solid condition. The condition of this piece is remarkable, given the fact that it is made from iron, and not bronze. This piece is all the more remarkable, in that it has survived intact after sustaining substantial battle damage. This battle damage can be seen with the two bends in the blade, and a small part of the end of the shank which was moved out from the blow to the piece. The blow to the piece traveled from the tip end to the shank, and did not shatter the weapon, as the blow appears to have been on the side of the blade, thus causing the two bends in the blade and the small section at the end of the shank to move out and expand. This piece was likely carried by an infrantryman, and was fitted to a wooded shaft about 12-15 feet long. This heavy lance was carried with two hands, and is known as a "sarissa". This type of weapon was also developed by Philip II, who was the father of Alexander the Great, and was king of Macedonia circa 359-336 B.C. His military genius transformed his army with many innovative weapons and battle tactics, and the weapon offered here was one such weapon. The finest weapons during the Hellenistic period were iron, rather than bronze, and were forged and hand beaten into shape. These iron weapons were extremely sharp and durable, and iron swords from this period could easily take off a mans arm at the shoulder, and penetrate bronze shields. The fact that the piece offered here did not shatter during battle proves that this piece was hammered again, and again, to give it strength and durability. (For the Hellenistic Greek weapon types see "Greece and Rome at War", by Peter Connolly, United Kingdom, 1998.) This piece is extremely rare and is seldom seen in this condition on today's market. This piece comes with a custom metal stand and stands upright. Ex: Private German collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1360626
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This extremely large Greek lead "sling-bullet" dates circa 5th-4th century B.C., and is approximately 2.25 inches long, by 1.35 inches wide, by .7 inches high. This piece is extremely large for the type, as most examples have an average size of approximately 1-1.4 inches long, by .7 inches wide. This massive scarce to rare piece was cast in a mold, is solid lead, and is a very heavy example. This weapon also has an almond shape, as most lead "sling-bullets" have, and this shape provided a stable aerodynamic flight, an easy extraction from a mold, and enabled this piece to more easily stay in the sling cradle without rolling out. This piece also has a lengthy inscription on one side, with seven to nine letters, and the other side has an image of a thunderbolt. The inscription may name a city, an individual, or it may convey an insult such as "take this". The inscription has not been translated, as some of the letters are not clear, and the inscription may also have abbreviations built into the one line of letters. This piece has a light gray patina with some spotty light brown mineral deposits, and is a complete example. This piece also has some dents and minor gouges, and some of these imperfections were likely a result from impacts from battle, as there is a thick patina seen over some of these imperfections. This piece is scarce to rare in this large size, and is a piece that best represents this type of ancient weapon. This interesting piece also sits on a custom display stand. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1329528
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This attractive piece is a Roman armor "belt fitting" plaque that dates circa 3rd-4th century A.D. This piece is approximately 2.5 inches wide, by 2.4 inches high, and is a complete example of a Roman bronze "belt fitting" plaque type segment, which was a component of a Roman belt. This Roman bronze "belt fitting" plaque was prominently displayed on a Roman legionnaire with a frontal view, and Roman bronze "belt fitting" plaques of this type usually portrayed heroic scenes that illustrate several Roman gods and goddesses. The back side of this piece has four round studs that attached this piece to a thick leather backing, which also served as the inner layer of the belt. The right side of this piece has two round elongated hooks that likely fit into a pin, and/or into another segment of the entire belt. The belt that held this plaque was a large and wide example, and may also have wrapped around the torso of a legionnaire in order to secure a "scale-armor" mail type shirt. In addition, this belt may also have supported a "gladius" or "spatha" sword and scabbard, and this type of Roman belt was known as a "cingulum", which was generally worn around the waist and best represented the Roman military soldier in the 3rd century A.D. (For the type, see Peter Connolly, "Greece and Rome at War", Macdonald Phoebus Ltd, UK, 1981, pp. 260-261.) This scarce piece shows a standing nude Dionysus, otherwise known to the Romans as Bacchus, who is seen leaning right, and is holding a "thyrsus" in his left hand, and pouring a wine offering into the ground from an oinochoe in his right hand. There is also what appears to be a panther seen below, and ivy tendrils are seen to the right as well. The military symbolism of this piece is apparent, as the "thyrsus" was not only a beneficent wand of Bacchus, but was also a weapon that was used to destroy those who opposed his cult and the freedoms he represents. It is quite possible that an individual, or a Roman soldier, who wore this piece was also a member of this cult. This piece has a nice dark green patina with some spotty dark brown highlights, along with some minute dark black mineral deposits. This piece is an exceptional "belt fitting" plaque, and is scarce on the market. This piece also hangs on a custom Plexiglas stand and can easily be removed. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1990's. Ex: Private New York collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1370697
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This mint quality Greek Illyrian helmet dates circa 6th century B.C., and is approximately 12 inches high, from the top of the crest box to the tip of the cheek pieces, and it is a full size example. This beautiful piece has been classified in "Antike Helm", Lipperheide and Antikenmuseums Collections, Mainz, Germany, 1988, pp. 59-64, as being "Type II, Var.B". This piece is in flawless, mint condition, and has no repair/restoration, and is one of the best examples on the global market. This piece has slightly elongated cheek pieces, a detailed punched decorative dotted band that runs around the outer perimeter edge, and a well-defined crest box. This piece was hand beaten from one sheet of bronze, and the crest box was added into the construction of the helmet, not only to define an attachment area for the crest which was likely made from bird quills, but also to give extra strength to the main body of the piece. The added crest box also was designed to protect the warrior from overhead blows. There is also a slightly extended neck guard which is finely made as well. This exceptional example also has some very minor horizontal scraps and nicks which is also an indication that this piece was in battle. This piece has a compact and attractive design, and is one of the top examples for the type. In addition, this piece has an exceptional dark green patina with dark blue highlights which lends this piece a great deal of eye appeal. The patina seen on this attractive piece is also in "as found" condition, and this helmet has not been over cleaned as most examples. This piece also comes with a custom metal display stand. Ex Axel Guttmann collection, Inventory no. 517, Berlin, Germany, circa 1980's. Ex: Private Dallas, Texas collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1276507
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This rare piece is a Greek Attic "black-figure" alabastron that dates circa early 5th century B.C. This piece is approximately 6 inches high, by 2.3 inches in diameter at the upper rim. This piece has four black bands, with light tan reserve sections seen between, that run horizontally around the piece from top to bottom. This piece is also designed with a wide, flat disk at the top which is a design feature that helped control the flow of liquids from the piece. This piece likely held a precious olive oil, or a perfume-type unguent with an oil base. This piece also has a black "line design pattern" that is seen on the upper third of the main body of the vessel, and this "line design pattern" also runs around the piece. This pattern is often referred to as a "net pattern" which usually is seen with straight lines, but the pattern seen here is seen with overlapping "u-shaped" sections that resemble overlapping scale armor, and there is a strong possibility that this is likely what this pattern is meant to represent. This piece was created at about the time of Athen's victory over the Persians at Marathon circa 490 B.C., and shortly after the stunning Athenian victory, Pheidias designed a massive bronze statue on the Parthenon referred to as the "Athena Promachos", meaning "Athena who fights in the front line". According to Pausanias, this warrior Athena was complete with a helmet, spear, and a scale armor cuirass which also displayed a facing head of Medusa. This image of the warrior Athena wearing a scale armor cuirass is also often displayed on Athenian "black figure" and "red figure" ceramics during the first quarter of the 5th century B.C. The "line design pattern" seen on the piece offered here likely refers to Athena Promachos, and her scale armor cuirass, and the Greek Attic painter who produced this piece, simply transferred this pattern onto this example. In addition, this piece likely held olive oil which was sacred to the goddess Athena, and there was a sacred grove of olive trees which was located near the base of the Parthenon. If in fact the design on this rare vessel is intended to represent scale armor, was the design of this piece conceived to protect a sacred olive oil? This is a question that really cannot be answered, but what is certain is that this alabastron vessel, with this "scale armor line design pattern", is also not seen on other Attic alabastron examples that are classified in the Beazley Archive, Oxford; however, this pattern is seen on other Attic vessels for the period that show Athena wearing a scale armor cuirass. The piece offered here is intact, with no apparent repair/restoration, and has some minute surface pitting and scraps. Overall, this elegant piece has a great deal of eye appeal, and is a very nice example with a rare painted design. This piece also comes with a custom metal stand, and can easily be removed. Ex: W. Levy collection, U.K., circa 1916-2006. Ex: Bonham's Antiquities, London, April 2007, no. 324. Ex: Private New York collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1375880
Apolonia Ancient Art
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This rare and complete Greek helmet of the Chalcidian type dates to the Late Classical Period, circa late 4th century B.C. This piece is approximately 16 inches high, and is a complete example in superb to mint condition, as it only has some minor crack fill, and is complete with all of it's decorative elements. In addition, this piece has a beautiful dark green patina with some white calcite deposits, and the patina is in it's natural "as found" condition. There are also three separate sword marks seen at the back which proves that this piece was likely in battle. This exceptional piece was beaten from a single sheet of bronze, and has a solid cast raised crest pin, along with applied brows that terminate in buds that resemble stylized snake heads. This complete piece also has a short flaring neck guard, hinged cheek pieces, and attachment rings seen at the front and back. The attachment rings also held the crest in place that was also centered by the raised crest pin. The decorative elements noted above are not usually all seen on this type of Chalcidian helmet, but this piece is a complete example without any losses. Another analogous example was offered in Christie's Antiquities, London, Oct. 2012, no. 107. (8,000.00-12,000.00 Pounds estimates, 32,450 Pounds realized.) For the type see: "Antike Helm" by Hermann Pflug, Mainz, Germany, 1988, pp. 137-150. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1970's. Ex: Private New York collection, circa 1990's. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Bronze : Pre AD 1000 item #872310
Apolonia Ancient Art
$265.00
This interesting Roman bronze coin is a bronze Sestertius, and was minted circa 60-68 A.D., and depicts a bust of Nero, who was in power circa 54-68 A.D. This coin is approximately 37mm in diameter, is Very Good quality, and has a nice dark green patina with heavy dark green/brown deposits. There are also four holes seen on this piece, and this likely facilitated leather ties which allowed this piece to be fitted into a composite corslet as scale armour. (See attached drawing.) This type of of Roman armour is known, but is extremely rare, and was not often manufactured by the Romans, although the blending of metal leaves interwoven with fabric, was known by the Greeks as early as the 12th century B.C. in Cyprus. (See "Warfare in Ancient Greece" by Tim Everson, Sutton Pub., United Kingdom, 2004, p. 154-155.) This piece could have served as armour during this period, as Rome had a brief, but quick civil war with four Emperors circa 68-69 A.D. This piece also has a deep mark in the center of the coin that was probably a test cut, rather than a battle mark. The test cut was done in order to test that the metal was 100% bronze, rather than a bronze plated "fourree". This test cut was also probably done when this coin was no longer in circulation, and could have been struck circa 68 A.D., when Nero was replaced by Galba. This coin is an interesting piece that had a dual utility. A custom black plexiglas stand is included, and the piece is easily removable as it is attached with clay. Ex: Private English collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Near Eastern : Pre AD 1000 item #1359731
Apolonia Ancient Art
$5,675.00
This extremely rare weapon is a bronze slashing sword that dates circa 1800-1200 B.C. This remarkable piece is approximately 21.4 inches long, by 2.25 inches wide at the point where the blade meets the shank of the weapon. This piece was hand forged into one piece from bronze, and is a thick and heavy bronze weapon. This powerful weapon also has a blade that slightly graduates in width from the shank to the blunt end, and this blade section of the weapon is slightly curved. The straight rectangle shaped "extended shaft" is also very durable, and is approximately .5 inches wide at the shank, by .25 inches thick. This weapon's "extended shaft" also slightly graduates in size, mostly with the width, from the shank to the end of the handle. The cutting edge of the blade is also only on one side, as the blunt end is flat, along with the top side of the blade. Overall, this weapon is very finely made for the period, and has subtle dimensions of construction which makes it a very special and specialized work of ancient arms. This weapon was designed to slash through an enemy with one sweeping motion, and an extended "wooden shaft handle" would have allowed this weapon to be held with one or two hands. This design also allowed this weapon to likely be able to penetrate heavy armor such as a helmet or a breastplate, as the "extended shaft" attached to an extended "wooden shaft handle" would allow one to generate a tremendous amount of force. This weapon may also have been designed for use from a chariot or horseback, as the owner would be able to slash in a downwards motion, which would have generated even more force than a horizontal slash. This weapon may also be of a type that was used in the battle of Kadesh, circa 1274 B.C., which was the largest chariot battle ever fought in antiquity, and involved perhaps 5,000-6,000 war chariots. This battle pitted the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II against the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II, and many types of weapons were created by both sides for this conflict. This piece has an attractive dark green patina with some red highlights, and some spotty light to dark green mineralization. This piece is also intact, has no repair/restoration, and has an ever so slight bend at the shank which may indicate that this piece was in battle. This weapon is extremely rare, is a highly specialized work of ancient arms, and is one of the most devastating weapons from antiquity. A custom display stand is also included. Ex: Private Austrian collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1278900
Apolonia Ancient Art
On Hold
This rare Roman bronze figurine is a standing gladiator that dates circa 1st-early 2nd century A.D. This bronze figurine is approximately 3.4 inches high, and is mounted on a custom display stand. This animated figurine is a standing gladiator, who is seen raising his left arm to the brim of his helmet, and has his left leg raised as if it is resting on his adversary. His raised left arm may be a signal either to spare or kill his adversary who is perhaps laying injured on the ground. The animated pose of the gladiator depicted here, with his raised arm and hand signal, is scarce to rare relative to Roman bronze gladiator figurines of this type, and is seldom seen on the market. The gladiator depicted here is also a "Murmillo" type, as he is seen wearing a "Cassis Crista", which is a broad-rimmed helmet based on the prior Greek Boeotian type, and the large helmet seen here has an enclosed double face visor, a forward raised crested plume, rounded eye visors, and decorative minute fish scale elements that are seen on the outer bowl. The helmet also has some minute details showing the double opening for the face visor, and this helmet is classified as the "Pompeii G Type", which is rarely seen on Roman bronze gladiatorial figurines as the more common "Berlin G Type". Early gladiatorial helmets, including the ones found at Pompeii, had round eye apertures for the eyes, and were often screened with removable round or semi-circular grating plates, and in addition, the visor grating also consisted of two halves that joined at the front, forming a vertical rib as seen on the exceptional example offered here. The helmet details noted above, relative to the "Pompeii G Type", are seldom seen on Roman bronzes of this type, and is another feature that makes this piece a very desirable example. This figurine is also seen wearing an arm guard on his right arm which is known as a "Manica", which was usually made of thick cotton quilt, leather, and some metal alloys. This gladiator is also seen holding a short sword in his right hand known as a "Gladius", and protective greaves on both shins. In addition, his right leg is seen wrapped with a protective covering which was used to kick at his adversary, and he is wearing a wide leather belt known as a "Balteus". This figurine also appears to be bare chested as well. There is also a palm branch "Palma" seen on his back side, and this was an award for victory in the arena. On receiving his awards, the gladiator made a lap of honor around the arena, waving his palm branch. (See "Gladiator: Rome's Bloody Spectacle" by Konstantin Nossov, Osprey Pub., United Kingdom, 2009.) The name "Murmillo" is derived from "Mormylos", meaning "seafish", and is sometimes spelled "Myrmillo". This name also alludes to the fish-scale design seen on the outer bowl of the helmet seen here. The "Murmillo" usually fought the "Thraex" or the "Hoplomachus", with whom he shared some of the equipment (notibly the arm guards, the all-enclosing helmet, and the dangerous "Gladius" short sword). The "Murmillo" fighting style was best suited for a man with large muscular arms and strong heavy shoulders that were needed to carry the weight of his shield and sword. Men who played the "Murmillo" were usually shorter and more muscular than most gladiators. The "Murmillo" depended on his strength and endurance to survive the battle against foes who were lighter armed and were suited for attacking. The figurine seen here also appears to be a short, muscular individual. The piece offered here is complete, save for the lower feet that are broken off, and this may have been done as this piece may have been a votive offering, and the breaking of the lower feet would keep the magic and spirit of the figurine in the grave. There also appears to be a shield hanging under the left arm, and a small fragment of this is missing. Overall, the condition of this piece is superb, and has nice detail with a nice even dark green patina, with minute spotty red highlights. (An analogous piece, without the minute detail that the piece offered here displays, was offered in Christie's Antiquities, London, Oct. 2003, lot. 13. Approximately 3.1 inches high, $3,400.00-$5,100.00 estimates, $5,593.00 realized.) The piece offered here has also been mounted on a custom display stand, and is a rare type seldom seen on the market. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1970's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1351664
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This rare piece is a Roman bronze weapon handle that is in the form of a panther head, and dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D. This attractive piece is approximately 3.5 inches long, by 1.5 inches wide at it's widest point, which is the width of the realistically designed panther head. This piece served as a weapon handle for a Roman dagger or a short sword, and may have served in a gladiatorial capacity, as the panther is a common symbol associated with gladiatorial armor. Another analogous gladiatorial handle, seen with gladiatorial daggers and short swords, is the eagle head type. Both of these types, the panther and eagle head handles, are rare to extremely rare on the market, and there are few recorded examples. The iron remains of the blade can still be seen within the hollow section of the piece, and there are also two bronze pins that held the blade into place. These bronze pins that run through this handle, were also hammered on each side of the piece, and this hammering securely riveted these pins into place. The head of the panther is not only very animated, but it is also a very powerful image. This very animated panther head is also very detailed, as there are silver inlaid eyes and fine details seen in the fanged growling mouth. The fanged mouth of the panther head is also seen biting down on a fragmented attachment ring. This piece also has a beautiful dark green patina with some spotty red highlights, and is an exceptional example for the type. This powerful piece is also mounted on a custom steel and Plexiglas display stand. Ex: Private Austrian collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Bronze : Pre AD 1000 item #1276518
Apolonia Ancient Art
$3,265.00
This piece is a scarce Greek Mycenaean bronze double-ax head that dates circa 1400-1200 B.C. This piece is approximately 6.3 inches long, by 2.25 inches high near the end of each blade. This piece is very solid, as it was cast as one piece, and because of it's heavy weight, it was well served as a heavy battle ax. This piece also had added strength, as the inner shank design is "V" shaped, and is not a round circle as most examples of this type have. This "V" designed inner shank provided for added strength relative to it's attachment to the shaft, and this design made this a powerful weapon, as this design gave added leverage to the warrior while striking a blow. This design also points to the fact that this piece was likely made for battle, rather than being made purely as a votive object after the death of the warrior. However, there is a strong possibility that this piece not only may have served in battle, but it was also used as a votive offering as well. This weapon was the principle weapon of the Mycenaean Greeks and was probably used during the Trojan War. This type of bronze weapon is also scarce to rare, because bronze during this period was very valuable, and bronze objects that were damaged and/or had lost their utility were often melted down into another bronze weapon or object. The shape of this heavy battle ax may have originated in Crete with the Minoan culture, circa 2000 B.C., as double-ax head weapons and plaques have been excavated at Knossos. This shape may also refer to the Minoan bull-jumping cult, as the ends of the double-ax may have represented the horns of the bull. A number of votive gold double-axes, found in Arkalochori in Crete, are of the same shape as the example offered here. This piece has a beautiful dark green/blue patina with some heavy dark green/brown mineral deposits, and is in mint to superb "as found" condition with no breaks. This piece also has a relatively sharp blade edge, and there is little or no wear over the entire piece. For the type see "Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Bronzes in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston", by M. Comstock and C. Vermeule III, 1971, no. 1630. The example offered here is very analogous to the example sold in Sotheby's Antiquities, New York, Dec. 2002, no. 18. ($5,000.00-$8,000.00 estimates, $5,975.00 realized. See attached photo.) Another example was offered by Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, for $7500.00. (See the exhibit catalog "Venerable Traditions", published Nov. 2007, no. 26. See attached photo.) Another example was also offered by Charles Ede Ltd., London, published in Greek Antiquities, 2006, no. 37. (4,000.00 Pound estimate.) The attractive piece offered here sits on a custom display stand, and can easily lift off. Ex: Private Swiss collection, circa 1970's. Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, Geneva and New York, circa 2000-2014. Inv.# P33-039-101514c. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition: