Apolonia Ancient Art offers ancient Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Pre-Columbian works of art Apolonia Ancient Art
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1306126
Apolonia Ancient Art
$985.00
These three Roman vessels are from the northern reaches of the empire, and date circa 3rd-early 4th century A.D. These three pieces are approximately 3.4, 3.5, and 4.5 inches high, and are all in flawless mint quality condition. These pieces are made from a tan terracotta, and have "strap designed" handles that are attached to the rim and main body of each vessel. There are some attractive spotty white calcite deposits and root marking seen on various sections of the vessels, and the bottom half of each vessel flares to a small and elegant round circular flat base. These esoteric designed pieces likely served as daily tableware vessels, and were likely used for wine and water. There are two cups with a single strap handle, and a larger three-handled storage vessel that may have held a grain product. These matching pieces were also produced in the Rhineland area, possibly in or near the Roman stronghold Trier, which was also a thriving ceramic production center. Ceramics of the type offered here were exported over a wide geographical region, and were popular in the western and northern reaches of the empire. The ceramics offered here are also very thin walled, and were produced with a very high firing temperature. This firing technique not only produced a fine ceramic that was very light, but also one that is very durable. Trier was also known for producing fine thin walled ceramics in antiquity, and the city was also the location where Constantine the Great established his summer residence, circa 306 A.D., and Trier subsequently became the capital of Rome's Western Empire. The pieces offered here have parallels that are classified as being circa 3rd century A.D., and are seen in "Pottery of the Roman Period. The Athenian Agora Vol. V.", by H.S. Robinson, Princeton, 1959, no. M191. These pieces are scarce on the market, as they are a matching set and are in near mint condition. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1990's. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that these pieces are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1374530
Apolonia Ancient Art
$825.00
This mint quality piece is a Roman glass patella cup that dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D., and is approximately 4.5 inches in diameter, by 1.5 inches high. This beautiful dark green glass piece is mint quality, has a thick honey brown patina seen mostly on the outer surfaces, and an iridescent silvery milky-white patina seen mostly on the inner surfaces. There is also some attractive minute root marking and some dark black mineral deposits seen within the thick encrusted surface patina. This piece has an applied ring base, a folded ring running around the rim, a raised inner base, and a pontil-mark on the bottom. This piece is also thin walled, and is very light in weight for it's size, and as such, is a rare example for the type. This piece is known as a "patella cup" due to it's design, and is one of the best examples for the type with it's exquisite patina. For an analogous example see: John Hayes, "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum", Toronto, 1975, no. 196, pl. 171. Ex: Private New York collection. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1381237
Apolonia Ancient Art
$875.00
This piece is an intact Romano-Egyptian terracotta fish that dates to the Roman Period, circa 30 B.C.-324 A.D. This piece is approximately 7 inches long, by 3.25 inches high, and is a complete and intact example. This piece was made with a dark red-tan clay, and was mold made from two halves. This attractive piece also some thick gray-white deposits, which was also made from it's original white gesso that coated the entire piece. This piece has a curved body that creates movement for the viewer, and there is an open mouth, a small vent hole under the body, and detailed fins. This piece was also likely a votive object that provided sustenance for the departed in the after-life, and this type of piece is also relatively scarce on the market. This piece also likely depicts a Nile perch, which was a popular fish in antiquity. This piece also sits on a custom display stand. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1303911
Apolonia Ancient Art
$925.00
This mint quality Roman glass "sprinkler" flask dates circa 3rd century A.D., and is in flawless condition with no cracks and/or chips. This piece is approximately 3.4 inches high, by 2.25 inches wide at the upper rim. This piece is also a large example for the type, and has a wider rim than what is usually seen. This piece has an exceptional patina, and is a light blue-green color, and has thick dark brown/black deposits that are seen over a brilliant multi-colored iridescent surface. The extra large wide rim seen on this vessel allowed for added control while pouring and/or sprinkling the contained liquid, and served as a palette for the liquid. This piece was also mold made from two halves, and the main body of this vessel has an impressed lattice-work "diamond pattern" type design. This attractive design is also very detailed, and the intricate "diamond pattern" design also imitates a surface texture that is very similar to that of pine cones. The pine cone was also a Greco-Roman symbol that was associated with the Greek god Dionysus, and the Roman god Bacchus. (For the type see: "Shining Vessels, Ancient Glass from Greek and Roman Times", Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, 1991, no. 93, $2,500.00 estimate.) This piece is also scarce in this pristine condition. A custom display stand is also included with this piece. Ex: New York private collection. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1191053
Apolonia Ancient Art
$2,365.00
This scarce and mint quality Roman ring dates circa mid 1st century B.C., and is approximately ring size 6 to 6.5. This piece is bronze, and has a traces of silver gilt that was highly polished. This piece is of superb to mint condition, and has a nice dark brown/green patina with some silvered highlights. The flat face has deep carving, and this seal ring produces an impressed image that is seen in high relief. This impressed image is seen facing right when the ring is pressed into a material such as wax or a soft clay, and the image has very sharp detail which is the bust of a young woman. This image closely resembles that of a young Octavia Minor, who was the sister of Octavian/Augustus and the third wife of Marcus Antonius, whom she married afer the death of her first husband, Caius Marcellus, in 40 B.C. She was also instumental in bringing about the treaty of Tarentum in 37 B.C., when Antonius and Octavian agreed to renew the Triumvirate. She was essentially a noble, loyal, and kindly woman who even looked after her step-children in Rome even after Antonius had formally divorced her. The wearer of this ring likely was a supporter of the imperial family of Octavian/Augustus, and was also likely a young woman. The portrait bust seen here has very analogous features to the known portraits of Octavia Minor, and this includes hair that is seen rolled into a bun at the back, and is seen rolled on each side of the head. There is also a hair curl seen hanging down in front of the ear, and there is a small mouth with an aquiline type nose. The portraits of Octavia Minor also closely resemble those of Livia, Octavian/Augustus wife, whose earliest coiffures were the same as hers. (For a discription of the portrait type see "Roman Historical Portraits" by J.M.C. Toynbee, Thames and Hudson Pub., London, 1978, pp. 48-50.) It's quite possible that the young woman seen on this superb Roman ring may also have been created to represent both of the Imperial ladies noted above, and in turn, represented support for the Imperial family. This scarce to rare ring can be worn today, as it is very solid, and it is a very fine example of a Roman jewelry piece from the early Imperial period. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.). I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1356984
Apolonia Ancient Art
$875.00
This Roman gold earring with a shield emblem is a complete example, and dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D. This attractive and large example is approximately 1.1 inches in diameter, and weighs 3.5 grams. This piece is a solid example, and is not plated. The shield emblem seen on this superb piece has a dotted decorative element in the center, and a beaded border. The clasp has been wired shut, as the wearer likely wore this piece everyday. The clasp can be adjusted so that it can be easily worn today, and the hoop is very durable as it has a large diameter. The shield emblem also has a single rivet that attaches it to the solid gold hoop, and this adds additional strength and durability to this beautiful example. This piece also has some spotty dark red/brown deposits, and can easily be cleaned. This piece is a very collectable example of ancient jewelry, and is an exceptional large piece. For the type see: Ruseva-Prokoska L., "Roman Jewelry, A Collection of National Archaeological Museum", Sofia, Bulgaria, 1991, nos. 30-35. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1374471
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This superb Roman bronze is an applique that shows a facing Diana that dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D. This piece is approximately 4.5 inches high, and is complete with no repair/restoration. This piece is a facing Diana, who was the Roman goddess of the hunt, and is seen with a bow quiver over her shoulder, along with a chiton and animal skin cloak that is draped over her left shoulder. She is also seen with a raised hair tie that holds her hair at the top of her head with intricate folds. This attractive bust of Diana displays a very serene face, and has eyes that were likely inlaid with silver. There is also a crescent moon pattern seen at the bottom outer edge of the bust, and this alludes to this goddess, as she was the Roman goddess of the hunt, nature, and the lunar cycle. This piece has an even light green patina with some spotty red highlights, along with some spotty light gray calcite deposits. This piece also was likely a decorative element that may have fit on a furniture piece or box. (For the type se Babelon-Blanchet, "Catalogue des Bronzes Antiques de la Bibliotheque Nationale", Paris, 1895, nos. 140 and 176; and another analogous example is seen in "Art of the Ancient World", Royal Athena Galleries, New York, 1985, no. 312.) This piece sits on a custom marble and Plexiglas stand. Ex: Private French collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Coins : Pre AD 1000 item #1150976
Apolonia Ancient Art
$265.00
This is a group of three (3) late Roman bronze coins that were minted by the emperor Gratian. These coins were minted circa 367-383 A.D., and are all AE 3 (17 mm) and grade EF to Superb. Coins A,B. and C (left to right) all show the pearl-diademed and draped bust of Gratian facing right on the obverse. The reverse shows - Coin A: Gratian advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum, GLORIARO-MANORVM left and right, H right field. (Sear no. 4142.) Coin B: Victory advancing left, SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE left and right. (Sear no. 4143.) Coin C: Gratian advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum, GLORIARO-MANORVM left and right, H left field, Star and P right field (Sear no. 4142.) All three of these detailed coins are slightly different with different symbols, and are all minted in the Siscia mint (Sisak, former Yugoslavia), as indicated by the SIS as seen below the ground line on the reverse of all three coins. All three coins have a beautiful glossy dark green patina, and have exceptional line designed detail. (A coin with a EF grade, Gratian dragging a captive reverse type, sold in Gorny & Mosch, March 2012, for $106.00.) Ex: Harlan J. Berk, circa 1980's. I certify that these coins are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1329528
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This attractive piece is a Roman armor "belt fitting" plaque that dates circa 3rd-4th century A.D. This piece is approximately 2.5 inches wide, by 2.4 inches high, and is a complete example of a Roman bronze "belt fitting" plaque type segment, which was a component of a Roman belt. This Roman bronze "belt fitting" plaque was prominently displayed on a Roman legionnaire with a frontal view, and Roman bronze "belt fitting" plaques of this type usually portrayed heroic scenes that illustrate several Roman gods and goddesses. The back side of this piece has four round studs that attached this piece to a thick leather backing, which also served as the inner layer of the belt. The right side of this piece has two round elongated hooks that likely fit into a pin, and/or into another segment of the entire belt. The belt that held this plaque was a large and wide example, and may also have wrapped around the torso of a legionnaire in order to secure a "scale-armor" mail type shirt. In addition, this belt may also have supported a "gladius" or "spatha" sword and scabbard, and this type of Roman belt was known as a "cingulum", which was generally worn around the waist and best represented the Roman military soldier in the 3rd century A.D. (For the type, see Peter Connolly, "Greece and Rome at War", Macdonald Phoebus Ltd, UK, 1981, pp. 260-261.) This scarce piece shows a standing nude Dionysus, otherwise known to the Romans as Bacchus, who is seen leaning right, and is holding a "thyrsus" in his left hand, and pouring a wine offering into the ground from an oinochoe in his right hand. There is also what appears to be a panther seen below, and ivy tendrils are seen to the right as well. The military symbolism of this piece is apparent, as the "thyrsus" was not only a beneficent wand of Bacchus, but was also a weapon that was used to destroy those who opposed his cult and the freedoms he represents. It is quite possible that an individual, or a Roman soldier, who wore this piece was also a member of this cult. This piece has a nice dark green patina with some spotty dark brown highlights, along with some minute dark black mineral deposits. This piece is an exceptional "belt fitting" plaque, and is scarce on the market. This piece also hangs on a custom Plexiglas stand and can easily be removed. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1990's. Ex: Private New York collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1386365
Apolonia Ancient Art
$425.00
This piece is a Greco-Roman lead horse that dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D., and is approximately 1.5 inches long, by 1.25 inches high. This piece was a "votive" type object, and was likely sold to the devoted as solely a votive object for dedication at a shrine or grave. This horse may also represent a racing type horse, or one that was tied to a chariot, and may be part of a complete object such as a chariot. This piece was cast from two halves, and was mold made. The horse is complete, save for three of the lower legs, and is a better example that what is recorded, as it is scarce to rare. This piece also has nice detail with the head, and there are reigns that are visible on the neck and body. This piece is also likely Thracian in origin, as votive lead plaques were common for the period and region as well. This piece also has an attractive dark to light gray patina, with spotty dark black and brown highlights. This piece also is mounted on a custom display stand, and has nice eye appeal. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Bronze : Pre AD 1000 item #872310
Apolonia Ancient Art
$265.00
This interesting Roman bronze coin is a bronze Sestertius, and was minted circa 60-68 A.D., and depicts a bust of Nero, who was in power circa 54-68 A.D. This coin is approximately 37mm in diameter, is Very Good quality, and has a nice dark green patina with heavy dark green/brown deposits. There are also four holes seen on this piece, and this likely facilitated leather ties which allowed this piece to be fitted into a composite corslet as scale armour. (See attached drawing.) This type of of Roman armour is known, but is extremely rare, and was not often manufactured by the Romans, although the blending of metal leaves interwoven with fabric, was known by the Greeks as early as the 12th century B.C. in Cyprus. (See "Warfare in Ancient Greece" by Tim Everson, Sutton Pub., United Kingdom, 2004, p. 154-155.) This piece could have served as armour during this period, as Rome had a brief, but quick civil war with four Emperors circa 68-69 A.D. This piece also has a deep mark in the center of the coin that was probably a test cut, rather than a battle mark. The test cut was done in order to test that the metal was 100% bronze, rather than a bronze plated "fourree". This test cut was also probably done when this coin was no longer in circulation, and could have been struck circa 68 A.D., when Nero was replaced by Galba. This coin is an interesting piece that had a dual utility. A custom black plexiglas stand is included, and the piece is easily removable as it is attached with clay. Ex: Private English collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1374571
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This brilliant Roman glass flask dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D., and is approximately 4 inches high. This piece is mint quality, and has no cracks and/or chips. This piece is a dark orange-brown amber colored glass, and has an extended flat lip with a folded rim, along with an elongated neck. This piece is also relatively "thick-walled", and has a very durable compact design. This vessel's globular body, with a wide elongated neck that is a third of the vessel's height, is also a hallmark design of early Roman Imperial Period glass. This piece has an exceptional brilliant "reddish-gold" multi-iridescent patina, and there is a thin silvery iridescent film patina layer seen on various sections of the vessel. This attractive silvery layer also fills into some heavy root marking as well. This type of Roman glass vessel is also classified as being "mid 1st century A.D." by John Hayes in "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum", Toronto, 1975, pp. 34-35, no. 101. Ex: Private New York collection, circa 1970's. Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, Geneva and New York, circa 2000-2014, Inv. #P33-059-012614a. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1357051
Apolonia Ancient Art
$765.00
This pair of Roman gold earrings with shield emblems and large hoops are complete, and date circa 2nd-3rd century A.D. These attractive pieces are approximately 1.25 inches high, by .25 inches in diameter for the shield emblems. Together the pair weighs 1.5 grams, and they are solid gold and are not plated. The shield emblems each have a raised central dot, and have a detailed beaded border. The hoops are very simple, and are a single strand that was attached to each of the shield emblems. These pieces are very durable, and can easily be worn today, as there is no clasp. This pair has some minute light red mineralization, and can be easily cleaned if one desires. A nice collectable pair of ancient jewelry with a simple design, which also displays well with the wearer. For the type see: Ruseva-Prokoska L., "Roman Jewelry, A Collection of National Archaeological Museum", Sofia, Bulgaria, 1991, nos. 30-35. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that these pieces are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1357255
Apolonia Ancient Art
$465.00
This Roman gold earring is a complete example, and dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D. This attractive piece is approximately .45 inches in diameter for the hoop, and the facing shield emblem is approximately .38 inches in diameter. This piece weighs 1.1 grams, and is solid gold and is not plated. The facing hemispherical shield emblem seen on this piece is not completely smooth as most examples, as it has hand beaten sculpted lines that run through the shield. The clasp has been tied off as it was worn everyday by the owner in antiquity, but with some adjustments, this piece can easily be worn today. This piece is solid and is very durable as well. A nice intact example that is complete, with no repair and/or restoration. For the type see: Ruseva-Prokoska L., "Roman Jewelry, A Collection of National Archaeological Museum", Sofia, Bulgaria, 1991, nos. 30-35. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1397562
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This scarce piece is a Roman bronze "Tabula Ansata" military plaque that dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D. This complete piece is approximately 3.4 inches long, by 1.2 inches high, by 1/8 inches thick, and has an exceptional dark green patina with spotty dark brown/red highlights. This piece is rectangular shaped, and was made from a sheet of bronze cut in a "Tabula Ansata" format, which was a tablet with dovetail handles at each end. This type of format was also a favored shape in Imperial Rome for creating votive markers, and "Tabula Ansata" simply means "tablet with handles". Roman bronze military tablets/plaques of this form have also been found with the remnants of leather covers of soldier's shields at Vindonissa, a Roman legion camp at the modern town of Windisch, Switzerland. The example offered here has a hole at each end, and within are remnants of iron rivets, in addition to, an iron rectangular plate seen on the backside of each rivet that fastened the plaque to leather, or some sort of other material. There is also some remnants of this material seen between the plaque and the iron rectangular plates as well. This attractive piece also has five lines of engraved text that reads: VIHANSAE-Q.CATIVS.LIBO.NEPOS.-CENTVRIO.LEG.III-CYRENAICAE.SCV-TVM.ET.LANCEAM.D.D. This piece likely refers to a Roman centurion whose name and title is seen on the first two lines of the plaque, and was a member of the famed Legion III, Cyrenaica, which was first formed by Mark Antony in Alexandria, Egypt circa 35 B.C., and was under his direct command along with his ally, Cleopatra VII. Elements of this legion were also known to have fought in the "First Jewish-Roman War", circa 66-70 A.D., and was one of the principle legions that besieged the city of Jerusalem. Vespasian, Proconsul of Africa, led this campaign, and subsequently, this legion also accompanied Vespasian back to Alexandra, circa 69 A.D., in the "Year of the Four Emperors", and proclaimed Vespasian emperor while also controlling the grain supply to Rome. Vespasian was quickly sworn in as emperor while still in Egypt in December circa 69 A.D. This legion also was known to have participated in yet another Jewish war, the Bar Kokhba revolt, circa 132-136 A.D. Elements of this legion were also known to have been along the Danube River, circa 84-88 A.D., the Parthian frontier under Trajan, circa 120 A.D., and again the Parthian frontier under Lucius Verus, circa 162-166 A.D. It's also likely this legion was involved in the fighting with Queen Zenobia of Palmyra circa 262-267 A.D., and over time, this legion was perhaps one of the most traveled Roman legions in Roman history. This piece is a remarkable Roman military object seldom seen on the market, and sits on a custom display stand. For the type see: Elizabeth Meyer, "Legitimacy and Law in the Roman World: Tabulae in Roman Belief and Practice", Cambrige University Press, 2004. Ex: Private CA. collection circa 1980's-2000's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1360586
Apolonia Ancient Art
$685.00
These three Egypto-Late Roman "millefiori" glass beads date circa 7th-8th century A.D., and are in mint quality condition. These three brilliant colored glass beads are approximately .75, .5, and .7 inches high, and .7 inches in diameter. These pieces are classified as being Egypto-Roman "millefiori" glass, and all three beads have vibrant multiple colors such as white, light blue, dark red, green, dark blue, yellow, and black. These three beads are also very different with their color combinations and their surface texture. "Millefiori" glass was highly specialized in it's production, and was made with multi-colored glass canes or rods. In antiquity, these beads were also prized as personal jewelry and works of art. These beads are also thought to have been produced in Egypt in the city of Fustat, and are also commonly known as "crumb-beads". These beautiful pieces are also very durable, and can easily be worn today. A necklace with 32 analogous Roman "millefiori" beads was sold at Christie's Ancient Jewelry, Dec. 2007, no. 426. ($15,000.00-$20,000.00 estimates, $27,400.00 realized. See attached photo.) The three Egypto-Roman beads offered here not only have very vibrant colors, but also have a high degree of eye appeal and are three of the finest examples offered on the market today. These three pieces also sit on a custom display stand, and can easily lift off their support pins. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1980's. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that these pieces are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Glass : Pre AD 1000 item #1355169
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This beautiful piece is a light blue Roman glass ribbed bowl that dates to the Hellenistic Period, circa 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D. This piece is approximately 6.75 inches in diameter, by 2.2 inches high, and is in flawless condition with no hairline cracks, chips, or any other imperfections. This piece also has 26 vertical ribs that increase in thickness, and run upwards from the flat bottom to just below the upper rim. This type of bowl is also known as a "pillar-molded" bowl, as it was mold made, and was then ground and polished into shape. There are also two decorative well-defined "wheel-cut concentric grooves", and a small well-defined "wheel-cut circle" seen on the inner bottom center of the bowl. In addition, there are two shallow "wheel-cut grooves" that are seen running around the middle of the inner wall. These shallow "wheel-cut grooves" are also so shallow in sections that they do not appear to have been intended as a decorative type element, but rather are marks that resulted from centering a polishing tool within the inner surface of the bowl. There are also some faint polishing lines still visible on the inner surface, as this piece is in mint condition, and may have been offered solely as a votive type object. This piece also has a spotty multi-colored iridescence, and some light earthen deposits seen mostly on the outer surface of the vessel. The exceptional piece offered here is also one of the better recorded examples, and is nearly identical and larger than the example sold in Christies Antiquities, New York, June 2012, lot 151 ($4,000.00-$6,000.00 estimates, $9,375.00 realized. 5.4 inches in diameter, with 22 vertical ribs. See attached photo.) Another example that was recently sold was offered in Christie's Antiquities, London, July 2016, lot 204 ($15,000.00-$22,000.00 estimates, $16,138.00 realized. 5.75 inches in diameter, with 26 vertical ribs.) The piece offered here is not only one of the best recorded examples, but it is also a beautiful example with a light blue color that has a high degree of eye appeal, and as such, it compares in color and quality to the two other examples noted above. For the type see John Hayes, "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum", 1975, nos. 50-52. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1278504
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This rare piece is a Roman iron javelin head that dates circa 3rd-4th century A.D. This piece is approximately 5.7 inches long, and is a complete example. This piece has a barbed "spiked tang" head at the end, and a rounded lead weight attached to the shaft about 3.5 inches from the end of this formable weapon. This piece has an exceptional dark brown patina, is in superb condition, and is preserved with a wax sealant which has preserved the iron shaft. There are also some spotty dark brown and white calcite mineral deposits seen mostly on the lead weight. This weapon was also known as a "hasta plumbata", meaning "leaded spear", or as referred to by the ancient source Vegetius, as a "martiobarbalus", meaning "Mars-barb". (See Vegetius, "Epitoma Rei Militaris", translated by N.P. Milner, Liverpool University Press, 1993.) Another ancient source, the "De Rebus Bellicus", M.W.C. Hassall and R.T. Ireland (eds), 1979, Oxford, describes the "plumbata Mamillata", meaning "breasted javelin", as a javelin with a lead weight and a pointed iron head, with flights attached to the opposite end of the shaft. The epithet 'breasted' likely refers to the bulbous lead weight. This lead weight was also molded onto and around the iron shaft, and was solidly attached to the shaft. This type of weapon is rare, as only a few examples have been recovered from the British Isles, notably Wroxeter; and even fewer examples have been found in Germany, notably Augst and Castell Weissenberg, and Lorch, Austria. However, the ancient source Vegetius, (1.17), does state that two Illyrican legions were renamed "Martiobarbuli Ioviani" and "Martiobarbuli Herculiani" by the joint emperors Diocletian and Maximianus because of their proficiency with this weapon. He further states that five "plumbatae" were carried by a soldier in the concavity of his shield, and they were thrown at first charge, or used to defend with the reserves and could penetrate the body or foot of the assailant. This weapon was also thought to easily penetrate shields because of the lead weight, and could be thrown at great distance. Vegetius, (1.17), further states that soldiers using the "plumbata" take the place of archers, "for they wound both the men and the horses of the enemy before they come within reach of the common missle weapons". This weapon was truly an innovation in Roman battle tactics, and is a weapon that is seldom seen on the market today, as it was made from iron which easily deteriorates in mineralized soils. Another rare piece of this type is seen in "The Late Roman Army" by Pat Southern and Karen Dixon, Yale University Press, 1996, p. 114, Fig. 46. A custom display stand is also included. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1990's. (Note: Addition documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition: