Apolonia Ancient Art offers ancient Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Pre-Columbian works of art Apolonia Ancient Art
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Pre AD 1000 item #1356955
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,285.00
This interesting piece is an Etruscan red-figure stemmed plate that dates circa 4th century B.C. This piece is approximately 5.45 inches in diameter, by 2.4 inches high. This piece has been classified as being from the "Genucilia Group", and the group name derives from an example that had the Etruscan name "P. Genucilia" inscribed under its stemmed foot. This piece also has been described as a "star plate", as noted by Prof. Mario Del Chiaro in "Etruscan Red-Figure Vase Painting at Caere", University of California, 1974. The "five pointed wave pattern" seen on the top side of this piece also resembles a "star burst". The "wave pattern" seen on these vessels are also known to have only five of these "points" as well, and why there is generally a "five pointed wave pattern" seen on these vessels is unknown. The "five pointed wave pattern" seen on this piece frames a young goddess facing left that is seen wearing long earrings and a sakkos over her hair. The sakkos has "X patterns" within, and the entire composition is done with a dark black polychrome over a light tan terracotta. This intact piece has a raised stemmed base, and has some spotty white calcite and mineral deposits seen in the low relief sections of the vessel. The bottom of the vessel has several old collection numbers seen including: "P401", "1026", and "Lot 60, Gray Coll., Sotheby's, June 88". This piece also has two "X" graffiti marks seen on the top side inscribed over the face of the young goddess. This piece was also used as an offering plate in sanctuaries, and the "X" pattern graffiti, along with the "X" patterns seen within the sakkos design, may also indicate the workshop where this piece was made and/or the artist who produced this piece. The overall design of this piece makes this a very interesting ancient ceramic, and is rare in this intact condition with vibrant painted images. (Another analogous example was offered in Christie's Antiquities, London, April 2011, no. 233. 800.00-1,200.00 Pounds estimates, 2125 Pounds realized. See attached photo.) Ex: Private English collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Sotheby's Antiquities, London, June 1988. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1290942
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,365.00
This attractive piece is a Roman bronze ring that dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D. This complete piece is approximately 1 inch wide, is ring size 6.5, and was made for a young man or woman. This ring has an oval shaped hoop, and this shape provided for a wide face that looks very large when worn on the finger. This piece is very solid and can easily be worn today as well. This piece has sections of original gold gilt seen over the bronze, and this piece has a brilliant translucent orange carnelian stone that is firmly attached to the bronze bezel. The beautiful carnelian stone was never reattached to the ring, and it is firmly in place in it's original setting. The brilliant orange carnelian stone also has a carved image of a seated animal, possibly a dog or a fox. This animal is seen on a ground line, and has raised ears and a long curled tail. The brilliant orange carnelian stone is also highly polished, has an oval shape, a flat bottom, and is clear save for a small black inclusion that is deep within the stone. This piece was also used as a personal seal/signet ring, and makes a sharp impression. The condition of this piece is superb, and is intact with no repair/restoration, and has original gold gilt seen on the inner and outer surfaces of the bronze bezel. Overall, this attractive piece is in better condition than most examples of its type, and is in its natural "as found" condition. Ex: Private New York collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, New York and Geneva, Inv. #P33-091-031915. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pottery : Pre AD 1000 item #1254565
Apolonia Ancient Art
$875.00
This interesting piece is a Recuay culture standing warrior that dates to the Early Intermediate Period, circa 400 B.C.-300 A.D., and the Recuay culture was centered in the Northern Peruvian Highlands, Callejon de Huaylas Valley. This piece is approximately 5.8 inches high by 4.2 inches in diameter, and is in intact condition, save for some minor stress cracks that appear to be filled at the base. This piece was made with a "resist-decoration" technique, and is a thin-walled white/cream colored kaolin clay with red-orange, yellow, and black colored line-drawn highlights. This piece also has some attractive light brown burnishing, and some spotty black mineral deposits. This piece shows a very animated figure that appears to be a standing warrior, as he is seen wearing a helmet and probable body armor, which is built into the round and portly design of the main body of the vessel. This figure also appears to be holding some objects in each hand, and the object in his right hand may be a round fruit which he is seen lifting to his wide mouth. The artistic style of this piece is also very geometric in it's design, and the lower legs and feet of this warrior are also designed in high relief at the base of the vessel. This piece also has the typical single spout which is wide and funnel shaped, and is integrated in width and height relative to the head of the warrior, which makes it to be somewhat imperceptible at first glance. It is also likely that the Recuay were a satellite people of the Mochica, and perhaps were guardians of sacrificial llamas and were an elite group of warriors. The ceramic offered here may also have been designed with additional ceramics, which made up a group scene that was created as a ceremonial grave offering. (For the culture and the warrior-type ceramics, see A. Lapiner, "Pre-Columbian Art of South America", New York, 1976, pp. 167-169.) A scarce piece with nice eye appeal. Ex: Dr. Ernst J. Fischer collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1356647
Apolonia Ancient Art
$965.00
This nice Roman bronze is an eagle applique that dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D. This piece is approximately 2.2 inches high, by 2 inches high. This piece is a very detailed Roman eagle that has a raised head and spread wings. The wings are very detailed, and have very fine feather "line design". The head is designed with the head facing right, and is seen looking at the viewer. There is also detail on the head not facing the viewer, and there is a very defined "dotted eye". This piece has a flat back, and there is an extended mounting pin seen in the back center. This piece likely served as an applique for a vessel, and may have served as a decorative element in a legionary phalera, or an element in Roman armor. The military application relative to this piece is readily apparent, as the Roman eagle was the Roman symbol of the power, and was presented in many art forms within the Roman army. This attractive piece is intact, and has no repair/restoration. This piece also has a nice dark green patina with some minute red highlights, and is a fine example for the type. Another analogous example was offered by Bonham's Antiquities, London, July 1995, no. 442. (500-600 pounds estimates. See attached photo.) The nice piece offered here is also mounted on a custom display base. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Concordia Art, Las Vegas, NV., circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1388453
Apolonia Ancient Art
$385.00
This appealing piece is a Greek terracotta bust that dates circa 4th-3rd century B.C., and is approximately 3 inches high. This large bust is intact, save a small edge chip around the vent hole hole rim seen at the back of the head, and is a terracotta that likely represents a goddess such as Demeter. This goddess is also seen wearing an elaborate and thick diadem, and has a very serene face. Demeter was the mother of Persephone who was responsible for the change of seasons, and the "rebirth" of crops during the year. This piece is in it's natural "as found" condition, and has some spotty earthen and mineral deposits. This piece is a pleasing example for the type, and is mounted on a custom steel and Plexiglas display stand with a total height of approximately 4.7 inches. Ex: Munzen and Medaillen AG, Basel, Switzerland, circa 1960's. Ex: Private German collection, circa 2000's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1338480
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This superb quality Greek bronze coin (17mm) was minted in Pherai, and dates to the circa early 4th century B.C. This piece is graded EF+/EF+ (Superb quality), is approximately 17mm in diameter, and is scarce in this grade. This piece has on the obverse, the goddess Hekate facing right, wearing a laurel wreath and earring. The image of Hekate on ancient Greek coinage is rare, and is seldom seen. Hekate was called the daughter of Demeter or Pheraea, and was associated with the fertility of the ground. The ancient city of Pherai was also named after Pheraea as well. The reverse has a detailed head of a lion facing right with an open mouth, and the Greek lettering of PH-ERAI seen around the head of the lion. There is also water seen flowing forth from the lion's open mouth, and the image of the lion seen on this coinage may represent a public and/or sacred fountain. This piece also has an attractive even dark green patina, with some light dark green surface deposits. Pherai was a city located west of Mt. Pelion in Thessaly, and was the second largest city in ancient Thessaly after Larissa. Reference: Sear 2207. Ex: Harlan Berk, Chicago, Ill., circa 1980's. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Stone : Pre AD 1000 item #1234381
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,275.00
This scarce piece is an extremely large Mayan green jadeite tube that dates circa 600-900 A.D. This solid piece is approximately 8.5 inches long by 1.4 inches in diameter, and has a beautiful dark to light green color. The beautiful stone seen here is likely jadeite, rather than serpentine, as it is extremely dense. This interesting piece has a bow-drilled hole at each end which connect near the center, and the bow-drilled holes are approximately .5 to .6 inches in diameter which also slightly narrow within the tube. There is also a layer of gray calcite deposits seen on the inner surfaces, and a light mineralized patina on the outer surfaces as well. This piece is also not perfectly round, has a somewhat rectangular shape, and has a great deal of eye appeal. There is a very strong possibility that this scarce piece was used in Mayan smoking ceremonies, and/or may have been used in Mayan regalia and served as a decorative item in a headdress, a necklace, or a sacred ceremonial object. This piece is also somewhat heavy, as it is likely a dense green jadeite which was sacred to the Maya. According to Francis Robicsek, in "The Smoking Gods", University of Oklahoma Press, 1978, p. 73, Robicsek elaborates on the forehead tube that was used to identify God K: "Forehead tube thought to represent a cigar. This is a fairly constant trademark of this deity. The identification of God K of any portrait lacking the forehead tube is suspect. It is nearly always present on ceramic representations and on stone carvings, but is usually absent from paintings in the codices. The object may be tubular or funnel-shaped, or it may resemble a celt. Sometimes it is undecorated, but more often it is striated, dotted, or marked with oval symbols. It also varies greatly in size and, if painted, in color. As a rule the tube emerges from the forehead; however, in two paintings, both of them on Peten ceramics, it protrudes from the mouth. On most portrayals the handle of the tube is sunk into the head and it is not visible; on others it emerges at the nape. As discussed earlier, these tubes probably represent cigars, but the possibility that they may represent torches or celts cannot be excluded." In addition, the piece offered here may also have been used by the Maya relative to the relationship of the royal elite to God K, and may have been used by the Maya as noted above in some capacity as a decorative element and/or used relative to the smoking culture of the ancient Maya. This piece also sits on a custom display stand. Ex: Private CA. collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Private Arizona collection. Ex: Private CO. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Egyptian : Pre AD 1000 item #1103081
Apolonia Ancient Art
$2,375.00
This appealing piece is an Egyptian polychrome wooden face mask that dates Third Intermediate Period, circa 1075-715 B.C. This piece is approximately 7.75 inches high, and is a near complete facial section of a wooden sarcophagus mask/lid. This piece has red outlined lips, and red and blue details which are painted over a golden yellow ground that covers the carved wooden surface. There are two dowel holes which were used to attach this esoteric facial section to the main body of the sarcophagus mask/lid. This piece also has some minute spotty black mineral deposits, and the condition of the carved wooden fabric is exceptional. This piece was carved in a very esoteric manner, as seen with the detailed lips and raised eyes. This piece has a great deal of eye appeal, and fits on a custom black plexiglas and marble stand. Ex: Sotheby's Antiquities, London, Feb. 1979, no. 273. Ex: Private New York collection. Ex: Sotheby's Antiquities, "The Charles Pankow Collection of Egyptian Art", Dec. 2004, no. 148. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1330096
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,365.00
These seven Greek gold button studs date to the Hellenistic Period, circa 4th-3rd century B.C. These pieces are approximately .4 inches in diameter, by .23 inches deep, and together weigh 4.1 gms. These pieces have an identical design and size, and all have a raised "half-moon" type shape. The back half of these pieces all have a raised round "attachment tube", with a hole through each side of the tube, and this design served as an attachment point for each button. These pieces were likely attached to a leather or wood backing that may have been part of a Greek scabbard, sword hilt, breastplate, or shield. These pieces are very decorative, and gave a very impressive look to any of the weapons noted above. Greek gold armor studs are seldom seen on the market, and these seven pieces are scarce to rare examples. These pieces are very finely made, and were produced by an artisan with a great deal of skill. These pieces are all intact, and have a light yellow patina. These complete pieces are all solid, and can easily be worn today in a necklace, a pendant, or women into a garment. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that these pieces are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1283823
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This visually appealing piece is a Roman marble of the goddess Minerva, and dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D. This piece is approximately 8.75 inches high, by 5 inches wide. This piece is a helmeted bust of the Roman goddess Minerva, who also doubled as the Greek goddess Athena. This piece shows Minerva with finely carved hair that is seen under the edges of the Corinthian type helmet, and is a portrait of a young woman that conveys the eternal beauty of the goddess. She is also seen with a serene expression, and her rounded chin also conveys a goddess that is perceived as a powerful woman. The helmet also has a raised crest, and has an inset square dowel joint on each side that probably supported a running Pegasus that was mounted on each side of the helmet. In addition, this piece is carved in the round, and the helmet design is seen on the back side of the bust as well. The face is completely intact, with no major breaks, and the carving of the eyes, nose, and the delicate mouth is extremely detailed. The eyes also have center drilled dots with a carved circular iris, which give this piece a very dynamic "alive" look, and the treatment of the eyes in this fashion is typical for Roman portraiture especially during the Antonine Period, circa 2nd century A.D. This piece also has a nice light gray patina, with heavier dark gray mineral deposits seen at the back of the bust. This piece is also analogous in design to the earlier Greek Athenian coinage, circa 5th century B.C., which shows on the obverse a helmeted Athena in profile wearing a Corinthian type helmet, with a helmet crest and dotted necklace. This piece also follows the design of the Greek gold coinage of Alexander the Great, who placed a helmeted bust of Athena on the obverse of his gold staters, circa late 4th century B.C. This piece is scarce to rare on the market, as it likely completed a full size standing and draped statue of the goddess. The portrait type of this piece was derived from an earlier Greek prototype, which is thought to be a large full standing bronze cult statue that is known as the "Athena Sunias", which was displayed in a temple dedicated to Athena at Cape Sounion. (See G. Despinis, "Athena Sunias-Eine Vermutung", Archaologischer Anzeiger, 1999, pp. 173-181.) An analogous example without the helmet crest and dotted necklace, and of nearly the same size was offered by Halan J. Berk of Chicago, Ill. in "Ancient Art", 1987, no. 45. (See attached photo.) The Berk example was also mounted on a custom display stand, as the piece offered here, with a center pin running up into the lower neck where the break occurred. The piece offered here has a great deal of eye appeal, as the facial design of this piece, especially with the treatment of the eyes and delicate mouth, provide this piece with a very dynamic "alive" and "penetrating" look. Ex: Private New York collection. Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, Geneva and New York, circa 2000-2014, Inv.# P33-059-012614b. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1323858
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,275.00
This interesting piece is a Greek/Gnathian baby feeder and strainer. This piece dates to the last quarter of the 4th century B.C., and is approximately 3 inches high by 6.25 inches long. This piece is also in superb condition, and has no repair and/or restoration. There are also some spotty white calcite deposits mostly seen on the inner surface and bottom of the vessel, and some attractive root marking. This piece has an applied strap handle on one side of the main body of the vessel, in addition to a closed ended extension that has an open top. This extension allowed one to carefully pour the contents of the vessel into another vessel. The extension also slopes slightly upwards, which also allowed for an even flow with a great deal of control. There are several small holes in the main body of the vessel which acted as a strainer for a liquid that ran from the main body of the vessel into the open topped extension. This piece with this type of extension is commonly known as a "baby feeder", as this type of extension is often seen designed with Roman glass vessels with this description, but this piece was more likely used to filter a liquid such as olive oil. This interesting piece is rare, if not unique, and is a type that I have not seen on the market. This piece also represents the last phase of Apulian ceramic production in southern Italy, as it is a blend with the Gnathian culture. This attractive vessel also has a nice even black lustrous glaze on the outer and inner surfaces of this vessel, and a delicate white painted "vine and ivy leaf" tendril design that is seen running around the lower rim which has incised stems, white leaves, and berries. (For an Apulian/Gnathian ceramic with this analogous ivy vine design see "The Art of South Italy, Vases From Magna Graecia" by Margaret Mayo and Kenneth Hamma, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts Pub., 1982, no. 137.) An extremely rare type that is seldom seen on the market. Ex: Gunther Puhze collection, Germany. Ex: Private New York collection, circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1386365
Apolonia Ancient Art
$425.00
This piece is a Greco-Roman lead horse that dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D., and is approximately 1.5 inches long, by 1.25 inches high. This piece was a "votive" type object, and was likely sold to the devoted as solely a votive object for dedication at a shrine or grave. This horse may also represent a racing type horse, or one that was tied to a chariot, and may be part of a complete object such as a chariot. This piece was cast from two halves, and was mold made. The horse is complete, save for three of the lower legs, and is a better example that what is recorded, as it is scarce to rare. This piece also has nice detail with the head, and there are reigns that are visible on the neck and body. This piece is also likely Thracian in origin, as votive lead plaques were common for the period and region as well. This piece also has an attractive dark to light gray patina, with spotty dark black and brown highlights. This piece also is mounted on a custom display stand, and has nice eye appeal. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #761896
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This exceptional piece is a Roman marbled bottle that dates circa 1st century A.D. This piece is approximately 4.5 inches high and is in mint quality condition. This piece is a dark green/blue color, has some calcite deposits on the inner surface, and some spotty black mineral deposits on the outer surface. This piece was made by blending glass rods into the piece, and this process created the "marbled" composition of the vessel. This piece is also much heavier than a Roman glass blown example that is thin walled. For an analogous example see Christie's Antiquities, New York, Dec. 2007, no. 90. ( $3,000.00-$5,000.00 estimates, $6875.00 realized.) A rare piece that is seldom offered on the market. Ex: Private New York collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : European Medieval : Pre AD 1000 item #1339561
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
These two fine designed pieces are two matching Viking bronze bracelets that date, circa 9th-10th century A.D. These two Viking culture pieces are approximately 3 inches long, by 2.6 inches in diameter for one bracelet; and the other bracelet is slightly larger and is approximately 3.1 inches long, by 2.8 inches in diameter. Both of these beautiful examples have matching hand stamped intricate pattern design work, and they were made from a single sheet of bronze, hand stamped, then folded into the form seen today. These pieces still retain some flexibility, and in antiquity, they were able to easily flex for the wearer of these bracelets who was likely a young woman. These pieces have a lovely dark green patina, with some attractive spotty dark blue azurite mineral deposits seen in various outer and inner sections of both bracelets. These pieces both display a hand stamped "triangular symbol", with three dots within, that are designed interlocking and are seen running around the perimeter within a double dotted border. There are also two raised bars that run through the middle, and there is a minute and detailed "interwoven cable pattern" seen between, and this "interwoven cable pattern" is seen again on each side of the bracelets. There are also four raised dots with a dotted border that may solar symbols, and extensive minute dotted line work is seen in various sections of the bracelets. The overall hand stamped design seen on both bracelets is very finely done, and the composition of the design work seen on both bracelets match. Only a skilled artist for the period could have produced the matching hand stamped composition seen on both pieces. Both of these nice examples are 100% original, and are intact, save for the slightly larger example that has two strengthened and repaired stress cracks which is normal for very thin bronze metal pieces such as these. These pieces are scarce with the high degree of workmanship seen on these two beautiful pieces, and fine high quality minute Viking hand stamped work is not often seen on the market. These pieces sit on a custom display stand, and can easily removed. Ex: Private Denmark collection, circa 1990's. (Note: additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that these pieces are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1381237
Apolonia Ancient Art
$875.00
This piece is an intact Romano-Egyptian terracotta fish that dates to the Roman Period, circa 30 B.C.-324 A.D. This piece is approximately 7 inches long, by 3.25 inches high, and is a complete and intact example. This piece was made with a dark red-tan clay, and was mold made from two halves. This attractive piece also some thick gray-white deposits, which was also made from it's original white gesso that coated the entire piece. This piece has a curved body that creates movement for the viewer, and there is an open mouth, a small vent hole under the body, and detailed fins. This piece was also likely a votive object that provided sustenance for the departed in the after-life, and this type of piece is also relatively scarce on the market. This piece also likely depicts a Nile perch, which was a popular fish in antiquity. This piece also sits on a custom display stand. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1384812
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,275.00
This mint quality and appealing Roman glass flask dates circa late 2nd-3rd century A.D., and is approximately 5.3 inches high. This piece is a light amber colored glass flask with a raised cylindrical neck, which is slightly constricted where it meets the body and flares at the rim. The main body has subtle pinched rims that run around the vessel, and these gave this vessel added strength for holding a heavy liquid. This piece has a brilliant silvery patina seen within the flared lip, and a multi-colored iridescence seen on various sections of the piece. A piece with nice eye appeal. (For the type see: John Hayes, "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum", 1975, no. 157.) Ex: Rafi Brown collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Superior Galleries: "The International Diamond Corporation Auction", Los Angeles, CA., June 8, 1993. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1370666
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,275.00
This superb Chimu silver offering bowl dates circa 1100-1350 A.D., and is approximately 7.4 inches long, by 4,75 inches wide, by 2.3 inches high. This attractive silver vessel was hammered from one single sheet of metal, and was formed into the oval shape seen here. This piece is also slightly thicker at the base, and graduates in thickness from the base to the thinner outer rim. The oval shape and size of this vessel is seen as early as 400 B.C., relative to ceramic vessels of the Olmec, and was a hand-held vessel used in ceremonies. In addition, this vessel has two added dimples, one on each side of the vessel, which also allowed one to easily hold this vessel with one hand. A third dimple was added to the base so that this piece could sit upright without falling over. There is also a punched decorative "cross hatch" design seen on the flat section of the outer rim, and this design is often seen on Chimu silver vessels. (See Sotheby's Pre-Columbian Art, Nov. 2006, no. 296, that shows a Chimu silver beaker with a "cross hatch" design on the upper rim.) The beautiful example offered here has some spotty black mineral deposits, and a dark gray patina with iridescent silver/gold highlights in sections of the vessel. The condition of this intact piece is superb to mint quality with no repair/restoration, and there are no small dents, cuts, or chips. Ex: Jean-Eugene Lions collection, Geneva, Switzerland, circa 1980's. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1299352
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This beautiful x-large Greek Apulian ceramic is a knob-handled patera plate that dates circa 340-330 B.C. This extremely large piece is approximately 18.2 inches wide from handle to handle, by 6.5 inches high, and is attributed to the Ganymede Painter. This piece is also larger than most examples of this type, and is a superb intact example that is 100% original. The overall condition of this piece is superb to mint quality, save for some minor glaze checkering on the inside surface, and some minor and minute stress cracks which are all normal for an ancient Greek ceramic of this size. This piece also has some minute root marking seen mostly on the bottom base stem, and attractive heavy spotty white calcite deposits that are seen on various sections of the vessel. This piece has not been over-cleaned, and is in it's natural "as found" condition, which is scarce for a vessel of this size; and in addition, what is also not often seen is that this piece also has very vibrant black, dark orange, yellow, and white colors. This piece has two decorative black raised handles attached on each side of the raised flat rim, and in addition, there are four raised knobs attached to the flat rim which are seen on each side of each handle. There is an additional knob seen in the top middle of each handle as well. These knobs are also very decorative, and may have served in antiquity as an additional hand grip on the vessel, as this type of vessel was typically used to pour libations. The center of this beautiful plate has a draped seated woman seen seated on a rock, and is holding a plate and floral garland. She is facing a standing nude youth that is seen showing an open box, and is holding a wreath in his right hand. The drapery seen on her body is very detailed and translucent, which lends this figure an erotic look. The entire scene is also balanced with each figure holding an object away from the center of the scene, and in this case, the standing nude youth is seen holding a wreath, and the draped seated woman is holding a garland which balance the scene of the overall composition. Both figures are seen on a "dot-and-egg" pattern band that is seen below a minute "dotted" ground line, and the entire scene is seen within a sacred white olive-leaf wreath that frames the entire scene. The underside of this beautiful plate has a black reserve, with a raised footed base. The Ganymede painter was one of the best accomplished Greek Apulian artists during the second half of the 4th century B.C., and according to A.D. Trendall in "Red Figure Vases of South Italy and Sicily", Thames and Hudson, London, 1989, p. 96: "His drawing is more fluid and his youths have a softer look. He is fond of figures holding fans, open boxes and cistae, divided by two diagonal lines." The piece offered here is a fine example of the Ganymede Painter, and knob-handled patera by this painter are scarce to rare. This piece has a very high degree of eye appeal and is scarce to rare on the market, due to it's condition, esoteric design, and that it has been attributed to the Ganymede Painter, which is rarer than the scarce examples by the Darius-Underworld and the White Sakkos Painters. (A recent example was sold by Christie's Antiquities, London, April 2014, for 9373.00 Pounds/$15,591.00 USD realized. Attributed to the Darius-Underworld Painter, circa 330 B.C., 14.75 inches diameter, 8,000.00-12,000.00 Pounds estimates.) Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Stone : Pre AD 1000 item #1293208
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,365.00
This primitive, but esoteric piece is a Chontal culture seated mother goddess that dates circa 300-100 B.C. This piece is approximately 4.9 inches high, by 3.4 inches wide, by 1.9 inches thick. This piece was carved from a single piece of hard green serpentine stone, and is an attractive dark green, with spotty light brown and black colors. This piece has a nice patina with some calcite deposits seen in some of the minute veins that run on the outer surface of this piece, and there is some minute root marking as well. In addition, this piece was polished in antiquity, and has a bright surface. This piece is also intact, with no repair/restoration, and has a small excavation mark on the back side. This piece is a "mother goddess" type, and is seen seated and holding her hands to her breasts. This attractive piece is also likely a fertility type piece, as this "mother goddess" emphasizes her breasts that are full of "mother's milk". This piece also emphasizes the Chontal culture artistic style which shows coffee bean eyes, double-line lips, square nose, and incised lines for the fingers and toes. This piece also shows the head slightly angled to the left, which offers this piece a more animated appearance. The Chontal culture is also contemporary with the Mezcala culture, and the design of the Chontal figurines have more rounded and defined features than the Mexcala culture, which tend to have very angular lines and features. The type of piece seen here is scarce to rare, and is not often seen on the market. This piece can also stand by itself, and simply sits on the included display base. (For the type see: Carlo Gay and Frances Pratt, "Mezcala", Geneva, 1992.) Ex: Private New York collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Howard Rose collection, New York. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1351887
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,675.00
This rare and esoteric piece is an Olmec seated duck poison bottle that dates circa 1100-800 B.C. This vessel is attributed to the Las Bocas region of Mexico, and is approximately 2.4 inches high. This piece has an attractive lustrous black glaze, along with some spotty light brown burnishing that is seen on all of the outer surfaces of the vessel. This piece is also intact, and has no repair/restoration. This piece is also in the form of a hollow container, as the top of the head has an opening into the hollow section of the lower body. This type of vessel is also known as a "poison bottle", as they generally held a substance such as red cinnabar or another hallucinogenic powder or liquid. This vessel was likely used in a ceremonial capacity, and this was likely the case for the majority of glazed Olmec vessels that depict birds such as ducks, raptors, and songbirds. (Another analogous "poison bottle" vessel of this type portraying a raptor is seen in "The Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership", Princeton University, 1996, Harry Abrams Pub., no. 61, p. 183. See attached photo.) The esoteric vessel offered here has a very animated face with dotted eyes, and two squat legs and an extended tail that serve as a tripod base for the vessel. There is also a "double dot-and-bar" symbol seen between the eyes, and the eyes also appear to represent dots as well. The "four-dots-and-bar" motif is also thought to represent the "axis mundi", as the conduit between the Olmec natural and supernatural realms, and the two dotted eyes together with the "double dot-and-bar" symbol, may be a representation of the "four-dots-and-bar" motif. The symbolism seen on this piece also reinforces the theory that this piece was created as a ceremonial type vessel. This piece is an exceptional example of Olmec ceramic art, and is seldom seen on the market. Ex: Ferdinand Anton collection, Germany, circa 1959. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1338092
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This rare to extremely rare piece is a Greek Apulian-Gnathia alabastron that dates circa 350-330 B.C., and is approximately 7.6 inches high. This type of vessel is also referred to as an aryballos, but due to its cylindrical shape, it is classified as an alabastron. This piece is extremely rare as it follows the slightly earlier Greek Apulian types in form, but it also combines the extremely rich floral decorations that are seen on the subsequent Greek Gnathian type ceramics. This piece is therefore classified as an Apulian-Gnathian type of ceramic, and the high degree of art and form for this culture makes it an extremely rare to rare example. This piece has a beautiful and detailed young woman, likely Persephone, that is seen emerging from the floral elements that are seen rinsing up from the ground. For the ancient Greeks, Persephone represented the change of seasons and eternal life, as she returned from the underworld every spring to regenerate the earth. The detail of Persephone, and the floral elements seen to the right and left of the bust seen on this vessel are exquisite. This piece may also be attributed to the "Toledo Painter", who was one of the more accomplished painters for the period who utilized extensive floral elements and detailed faces as seen on this beautiful piece. This piece also has a flat designed opening, which also was an aid in controlling the flow of precious oil. This piece has a lustrous black glaze, and vibrant white, yellow, and light brown colors. The vibrant white color of the bust of Persephone also pops out from the black background, and can easily be seen from a great distance. This piece is also intact with no repair and/or restoration, and is in mint condition. There are some spotty light white calcite deposits seen in various sections, and the black glaze is deep and even over the entire piece. This piece also easily stands by itself, and is a remarkable and beautiful example of an ancient Greek ceramic. (For the type see "The Art of South Italy: Vases from Magna Graecia by Margaret Mayo, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1982, nos. 55-56 and 128-129.) Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, Geneva, circa 1990's. Ex: Private Swiss collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1226370
Apolonia Ancient Art
$3,265.00
This beautiful piece is a Graeco-Roman bronze that dates circa 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D. This complete piece is approximately 3.5 inches high, and stands by itself on it's own base. This type of nude female Graco-Roman piece is known as the "Aphrodite Anadyomene", whose name signifies the birth of the goddess from the foam of the sea. The Greek goddess Aphrodite was born from the sea foam created when the severed genitals of Uranus were cast into the sea. Like many other naked figures of the goddess Aphrodite, the "Anadyomene" was not posed to conceal the body, and has arms raised to the hair which exposes the body to the gaze. In the Hellenistic and Roman periods, each hand is seen lifting and/or wringing the wet hair strands that hang down to the shoulders, as Aphrodite was seen rising from the sea at her birth. Her head is also seen slightly bent, her face is generally seen with a long straight nose with a small mouth, and she usually has wide hips and thighs. All of these features noted above create an impression of youthful fertility, and portray Aphrodite as having eternal youth and beauty. The piece offered here displays all of these features, and in addition, the "Aphrodite Anadyomene" is portrayed in a "contrapposto pose", with the weight carried on one leg with a slight twist to the waist. For the type, see Margarete Bieber, "The Sculpture of the Hellenistic Age", New York: Columbia University Press, 1955. The piece offered here has the features attributed to the "Aphrodite Anadyomene" sculptural type as noted above, including the rolled hair that is seen coiled into a bun with a small tie at the front. The piece seen here is an exceptional example of the type, as the face is very sensual with the long nose and slight smile. This piece is also complete, is cast with it's own base, and is intact with a beautiful dark green patina with red highlights. This piece is scarce on the market in this complete and superb condition, and it also sits on an included custom Plexiglas stand. Ex: Frank Sternberg collection, Zurich, Switzerland, circa 1980's. Ex: Antiqua Ancient Art, Los Angeles, CA. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1375798
Apolonia Ancient Art
$3,675.00
This vibrant piece is a Greek Apulian "Red-Figure" lidded mug that dates circa 340-320 B.C., and is approximately 8.2 inches high with the lid, by 4.6 inches in diameter. This mint quality vessel is attributed to the "Darius-Underworld" workshop, and is also attributed as being by the "Stoke-on-Trent" painter who is thought to have worked in this workshop. The "Darius-Underworld" workshop produced several of the best painters for the period, and they all had their own distinctive attributes that are seen in their compositions. This mint quality piece has no repair/restoration, and in addition, has very vibrant black, white, yellow, and dark orange colors. This piece has a rounded knobbed handle seen in the top center of the lid, and there is a single female bust, along with a detailed floral and acanthus pattern. There is also a large female bust seen on the main body of the vessel facing left, along with floral patterns, and a large acanthus pattern below the single "double-ribbed" handle. This goddess is also seen wearing a detailed white and yellow sakkos in her hair that is highlighted with a "dotted and cross" pattern, an elaborate earring, and a dainty white dotted necklace. Her facial features are very pleasing, and she also seems to exude serene eternal youth. This portrait type is commonly known as the "Lady-of-Fashion", and is thought by many academics to represent Demeter and/or Persephone. The Greek myth of Persephone's abduction and return from the underworld gave rise to the belief that the restoration of the goddess to the upper world promised the faithful their own resurrection from death. The piece offered here is a much better example than what is usually seen on the market, due to it's mint quality condition, vibrant colors, and superb artistic style. This piece also has some minute spotty black mineral deposits, and has a nice dark even black glaze. An analogous vessel of this type was offered in Christie's Antiquities, New York, Dec. 2011, no. 138. ($3,000.00-$5,000.00 estimates, $5,250.00 realized.) Another analogous example was offered by Royal Athena Galleries, New York, Sept. 2010, in "One Thousand Years of Ancient Greek Vases II, no. 142. ($4500.00 estimate. See attached photo.) The mint quality piece offered here also has superb artistic style, and is not often seen on examples of this type. Ex: Private Swiss collection, circa 1970's. Ex: Private Illinois collection, circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1370697
Apolonia Ancient Art
Call For Price
This mint quality Greek Illyrian helmet dates circa 6th century B.C., and is approximately 12 inches high, from the top of the crest box to the tip of the cheek pieces, and it is a full size example. This beautiful piece has been classified in "Antike Helm", Lipperheide and Antikenmuseums Collections, Mainz, Germany, 1988, pp. 59-64, as being "Type II, Var.B". This piece is in flawless, mint condition, and has no repair/restoration, and is one of the best examples on the global market. This piece has slightly elongated cheek pieces, a detailed punched decorative dotted band that runs around the outer perimeter edge, and a well-defined crest box. This piece was hand beaten from one sheet of bronze, and the crest box was added into the construction of the helmet, not only to define an attachment area for the crest which was likely made from bird quills, but also to give extra strength to the main body of the piece. The added crest box also was designed to protect the warrior from overhead blows. There is also a slightly extended neck guard which is finely made as well. This exceptional example also has some very minor horizontal scraps and nicks which is also an indication that this piece was in battle. This piece has a compact and attractive design, and is one of the top examples for the type. In addition, this piece has an exceptional dark green patina with dark blue highlights which lends this piece a great deal of eye appeal. The patina seen on this attractive piece is also in "as found" condition, and this helmet has not been over cleaned as most examples. This piece also comes with a custom metal display stand. Ex Axel Guttmann collection, Inventory no. 517, Berlin, Germany, circa 1980's. Ex: Private Dallas, Texas collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1378546
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This very rare Greek (EL) electrum stater is from Kyzikos, and dates circa 550-450 B.C. This coin is approximately 20mm wide, weighs 16.12 gms, and is in extremely fine condition (EF/EF). This coin has a light reddish/brown patina, and perfect centering. The (OBV.) features a bust of Athena wearing a crested "Attic type" helmet facing left, with a zig-zag and pellet pattern designed crest base, and a tunny fish below. The (Rev.) features a quadripartite incuse square. This coin probably was influenced by the helmeted Athena coinage of Athens, and perhaps signaled a trade alliance. An exceptional specimen not often seen on the market. References: Boston MFA 1446; Gulbenkian 609. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1990's. Ex: Roma Numismatics, Auction IX, 2015, no. 320. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Bronze : Pre AD 1000 item #1264405
Apolonia Ancient Art
$575.00
This mint quality piece is a Roman bronze key that dates circa 1st-2nd century A.D. This piece is approximately 2 inches long, by .75 inches in diameter for the ring seen at the terminal end. This piece has a beautiful light blue to green patina with some spotty red highlights. This piece is in better condition than most examples, and is a mint quality piece with well defined groves seen at the end. This piece may have fit a personal strong box, or possibly a small door. This type of key is also published in "Handwerk und Berfude in der Romischen Stadt', by Rieche & Schalles, Cologne, 1994, pp. 46-47. This nice piece is a complete example of a Roman bronze key that was individually owned by a Roman with some means. This piece also hangs from a custom stand, and can easily be worn today in a necklace. Ex: Private New York collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1290668
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This attractive coin is a Greek EL (electron) hekte that was minted in Kyzikos, circa 550-500 B.C. This scarce piece shows the winged helmeted head of Perseus on the obverse, with a tunny fish behind; and the reverse is a quadripartite incuse square punch. This piece is superb quality (EF+/EF+), is approximately 12mm, 2.69gms, is well centered for the type, and has a lustrous high relief sharp portrait of the mythical figure Perseus. The portrait is also seen in the "Greek Archaic" artistic style, and is seen with a large almond eye, a large nose and chin, and a slight smile. "Greek Archaic" portraiture is also a very desirable feature highly valued by collectors of ancient Greek coins, and the portrait seen here is a fine example. There is also an unobtrusive test mark behind the bust, and is very difficult to see, and does not detract from the detailed and high relief portrait of Perseus. Kyzikos was located on the southwest shore of the Propontis in ancient Mysia next to the river Aisepos. The city's prosperity was due principally to its two fine harbors, which made it a convenient stopping point for merchant ships trading between the Aegean and Black Seas, and the coin seen here likely was made to facilitate port and shipping fees. Kyzikos principle export was the tunny fish, which is often seen on the obverse of it's coinage. The prevalence of winged beings seen on Kyzikene coinage is a reflection of an archaic mythical convention of art, that assigned wings to most divine or sacred entities as a symbol of their nature, and in the case of the gods, of their power to move across great distances. On the coin offered here, we see Perseus, who was the son of Zeus and the mortal Danae, who was the daughter of the king of Argos; and as Perseus had divine status, he was widely worshiped and admired among the ancient Greeks. On the exceptional coin offered here, he is depicted as a divine entity wearing a winged helmet, which is the so-called "Helm of Hades", which rendered its owner invisible to other supernatural entities and mortals. This winged helmet was given to him by Athena, in order to help him evade the gorgons Sthenno and Euryale after he had slain and decapitated their sister Medusa. The coin offered here is scarce to rare on the market, and is a rare depiction of Perseus. Von Fritze no. 65. SNG von Aulock no. 1186. Ex: Harlan Berk, Chicago, Ill., circa 1990's. Ex: Private New York collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Near Eastern : Pre AD 1000 item #1027193
Apolonia Ancient Art
$765.00
This extremely rare piece is an early Islamic glass flask, circa 6th-8th century A.D. This intact piece is approximately 2.8 inches high, and is a light green color with multi-colored iridescence that is seen on various inner and outer sections of the vessel. This piece is rather thick walled, has a fairly wide indented bottom, a short tubular neck that has a slight flattening at the base, and a pontil-mark on the bottom. In addition, the neck is folded to the inside, and there are three stepped bulges seen within the neck which are a light yellow, green, and purple color. This piece is likely an early example of Islamic glass, due to the overall fabric of the vessel and the neck design as noted above. This piece is from an extremely rare early Islamic glass group, and some of these extremely rare pieces from this group are also listed as "possibly Sassanian", but given the probable region, i.e. Syro-Palestinian or Cypriot, where this piece was likely manufactured, a Sassanian attribution from modern day central Iran is highly unlikely. This piece, as being from this extremely rare early Islamic glass group, is also one of the earliest Islamic glass examples recorded. An analogous example listed as "possibly Islamic and of possible Syro-Palestinian or Cypriot manufacture", approximately 2.5 inches high, is seen in "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum", by John B. Hayes, Royal Ontario Museum Pub., 1975, no. 670. (See attached photo.) Another extremely rare example is seen in Sotheby Park Bernet Inc., Important Antiquities, New York, Dec. 1978, no. 138. (This piece is nearly the same size as the piece offered here, and is listed as "probably later Sassanian or early Islamic, circa 5th-8th century A.D.") The example offered here has a type of construction within the neck that required a great deal of skill, and is more advanced than the typical late Roman blown glass that is seen in the 4th-5th century A.D. Islamic glass also tends to have several colors within the glass, in contrast to the Sassanian culture, which was known for producing faceted cut glass that was more uniform in color. The Sassanian culture, circa 6th-8th century A.D., was from central modern day Iran, and was very skilled at glass production, and they are known for being able to take a solid cube of glass and carve/sculpt this into a faceted cup, bowl, or a plate. The exceptional small flask offered here is not only in mint condition, but it is also a type that is not seen on the market or in private collections. This extremely rare piece is a little gem and would be an excellent addition to a collection of ancient glass. Ex: Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pottery : Pre AD 1000 item #1239527
Apolonia Ancient Art
$3,265.00
This rare piece is a Salinar/Viru culture monkey "transformation" type vessel that dates circa 400-200 B.C. This piece is approximately 9 inches long by 7 inches high, and is in superb condition with no repair/restoration. This piece is a standing quadruped with a stylized lobed monkey's head, and a short tail is seen curled at the back. This piece is seen standing on sturdy legs, with each flank painted with mythical creatures that have bared fangs and claws. The whole piece is covered with a light yellow-brown slip, and the mythical creatures and facial elements are painted in a light reddish-orange color. This piece is also a "stirrup-handle" type piece that is also designed as a "whistle" type vessel, as it makes a shrill sound when one blows into the raised end of the handle, and as such, this vessel was also likely a "ceremonial" type vessel. In addition, this piece also represents a "transformation" type vessel, as the stylized lobed head on the monkey has human and animal features. This rare early Andean culture ceramic may also be a prototype for the subsequent Moche I ceramics, and as such, this type of piece set the standard for Andean ceramics that have a great deal of realism regarding both human and animal representations. This intact piece has no restoration/repair, some spotty light brown mineral deposits, and is a superb to mint quality example for the type that is seldom seen on the market. Another analogous example of this culture is seen in Lempertz Pre-Columbian Art, Brussels, Jan. 2010, no. 49. (See attached photo. The Lempertz example also has an analogous painted mythical creature on the flanks as the piece offered here, and both of these pieces may have been produced in the same workshop.) This type of piece is x-rare to rare, and has a high degree of eye appeal. Ex: Dr. Ernst J. Fischer collection, Germany, circa 1980's. Ex: Auktion Ketterer 163, 1986. Ex: Private German collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available for the purchaser, including a TL test from Gutachten Lab., 01/14/1991, no. 369012, and EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Byzantine : Pre AD 1000 item #1357220
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This detailed and interesting piece is a late Roman/Byzantine bronze bracelet that dates circa 4th-6th century A.D. This piece is approximately 2 inches in diameter, by 1.2 inches high. The opening on the back side is approximately .9 inches wide, and the terminal ends have rounded edges. This beautiful piece is also intact, and has no repair and/or restoration. This piece has six engraved box designs, and within each box is a "stylized floral" pattern that is also a conventional art design for the period. The "stylized floral" patterns are often seen in other art pieces for the period, and were sometimes used to portray the "holy cross" with "four pointed rays". There is one box in the center of the piece that has "four pointed rays", while the others have six to eight. This symbol was used in the same context as the holy "fish" symbol, which was used to signal and mark one's faith. This piece also has a beautiful light to dark green patina, and has some spotty light blue and red highlights. The engraving is very fine and detailed, and is a superb example for the period. This piece does not flex, although the metal is relatively thin, and really should not be worn today. This piece sits on a custom metal stand, and has a great deal of eye appeal. Ex: Private Austrian collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1374723
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This scarce piece is a Greek core-formed glass alabastron, and dates circa mid 4th-3rd century B.C. This attractive piece is approximately 4.75 inches high, by 1.25 inches wide from handle to handle. This piece is a brilliant cobalt dark blue glass that has added dark yellow trailing glass, and this dark yellow trailing glass is seen as decorative patterns that were applied on the main body of the vessel. These "zig-zag" and "linear" yellow glass patterns were added to the vessel as it was spinning on a heated rod. This piece also has a short neck, a rounded disk at the lip of the vessel, and two small lug handles seen below the shoulder of the vessel. Glass alabastra of this type were containers for perfumed oils, and their flat rounded rims allowed their precious contents to be dispensed easily in small quantities. As the name suggests, these vessels in glass are probably modeled after those made in alabaster. The exceptional piece offered here is in superb to mint quality condition, and is intact with no repair and/or restoration. This piece also has some spotty light to dark white calcite deposits, and these form a thin layer in sections of the vessel. There is also some small minute rounded spalls and cracking with mineralization within, which is normal for authentic vessels of this type. Overall, a superb to mint conditioned piece that has a patina and brilliant color that is much better than what is normally seen. (This piece is also classified as: Grose Class II:B; Harden Form 10, Alabastron Form II:4, and is analogous to the examples seen in: "The Toledo Museum of Art, Early Ancient Glass", by Frederick Grose, Hudson Hills Pub., 1989, nos. 132-133.) A custom Plexiglas display stand is included. Ex: Rafi Brown collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Superior Galleries: "The International Diamond Corporation auction", Los Angeles, CA., June 1986. Ex: Superior Galleries auction, Los Angeles, CA., June 8, 1993, no. 135. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1385336
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This scarce piece is a Colima water carrier figurine that dates to the Proto-classic Period, circa 100 B.C.-250 A.D., and is approximately 13.25 inches high. This piece is intact with no repair and/or restoration, and has a nice even deep red glaze over the entire outer surface, save the bottoms of the flat feet. This piece also stands solidly by itself, and the water carrier seen here has a large jar on his back that has detailed ropes and fittings which are not normally seen on scarce pieces of this type. This water carrier also has his hands behind his head in order to steady his heavy load, and he also has a serene expression which runs counter to one that has a heavy load on his back. This piece also has some spotty black mineral deposits, and the surfaces show little wear. An exceptional example seldom seen on the market. Ex: Sotheby's pre-Columbian Art, New York, Nov. 2006, no. 387. ($5,000.00-$7,000.00 estimates, $9,000.00 realized.) Ex: Private Kansas collection, circa 2000's. Published: Featured in the ATADA Online Show, Aug. 9-19 2018 (www.atada.org/online-show). I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1392002
Apolonia Ancient Art
$875.00
This scarce piece is a Huari bowl that dates to the Middle Horizon period, circa 550-1050 A.D. This piece is approximately 6.5 inches high, by 6.8 inches in diameter, and has white, black, dark orange, and dark red colors. This interesting piece has a flat bottom and an oval opening at the rim. This piece has a mirror image design that appears to be a "jugate-designed" type image, which are two heads back-to-back with a shared central white eye. This image also likely represents a sacred mythical creature that could be part feline, as there are also black dots seen within the design that could represent jaguar spots. There are also two raised bands that rise above the main design, and in addition, there are white and black dots that frame the entire image which may be celestial in nature. There is a "key pattern" that forms a ground line, and they also divide the vessel into two halves, along with a "chevron" pattern that is a hallmark design seen on Huari ceramics. This vessel could have been used in a sacred ceremony, and may also have served as a seed storage jar. This piece also has an ancient repair, as indicated by two bow-drilled holes that held a cord wrapping which held a crack together. This piece is complete, and has some minor crack fill seen mostly at the base that was done 30 plus years ago. This piece also has some attractive spotty white calcite deposits seen on the inside and outer surfaces. An interesting piece that has a very complex design. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1970's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1384711
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,865.00
This rare piece is a Greek Attic aryballos in the form of a shoe, and dates circa early 4th century B.C. This appealing piece is approximately 3.9 inches long, by 2.8 inches high, and is an intact example with no repair and/or restoration. This piece was mold made, and has a single strap handle applied at the back, along with a black glazed fluted spout. The strap handle also has a black glaze, and the balance of the piece is a orange/red terracotta. This shoe also has delicate and realistic molding, and is an excellent representative of an ancient Greek shoe. This piece also has some minute spotty white calcite deposits, and is an extremely rare piece that is seldom seen on the market. This piece also stands by itself, and has a Plexiglas display stand. Ex: Private French collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Christie's Antiquities, London, Oct. 2011, no. 96. 1,800-2,200 Pounds estimate, $2,800-$3,300.00. Ex: Private New York collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pottery : Pre 1492 item #1185287
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This attractive piece is an Inka-Chimu canteen vessel that dates circa 1450-1533 A.D. This piece is approxiamtely 8.5 inches high by 3.5 inches wide, and is in mint to superb condition with no repair/restoration. This piece has an attractive glossy black glaze with some dark brown burnishing. This piece has an indented depression on each side, and seen centered within, is a star and a spiral symbol on each side of the vessel. The star is a well known Inka symbol, and is often seen as a design shape on Inka bronze mace heads and black basalt bowls. The spiral design is also seen as a sacred Nazca line symbol, and these line symbols created in the desert were constructed by the Nazca to have been viewed by the Gods from the air. The sacred Nazca spiral design may have served as a "water/rain symbol", and the canteen vessel offered here may have held water in a votive capacity as well. (An analogous sacred Nazca spiral symbol is seen published in "The Mystery On the Desert" by Maria Reiche, pub. 1949, reprint 1968.) The piece offered here was also likely made by Chimu potters who simply continued working for their Inka masters who conquered their city state of Chanchan circa 1470 A.D. The piece offered here derives from earlier Chimu pottery types/techniques, notably the lustrous blackware made by the north-coast potters of Chanchan and Lambayaque. One feature of these Chimu potters, seen on the vessel offered here, is the single elongated neck of the vessel. This piece is an interesting example of Andean pre-Columbian art, as it has symbols that are common to several cultures, and has a very esoteric shape which is another hallmark of Inka ceramics. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1970's. Ex: Dr. Klaus Maria collection, circa 1980-2012. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Bronze : Pre AD 1000 item #872310
Apolonia Ancient Art
$265.00
This interesting Roman bronze coin is a bronze Sestertius, and was minted circa 60-68 A.D., and depicts a bust of Nero, who was in power circa 54-68 A.D. This coin is approximately 37mm in diameter, is Very Good quality, and has a nice dark green patina with heavy dark green/brown deposits. There are also four holes seen on this piece, and this likely facilitated leather ties which allowed this piece to be fitted into a composite corslet as scale armour. (See attached drawing.) This type of of Roman armour is known, but is extremely rare, and was not often manufactured by the Romans, although the blending of metal leaves interwoven with fabric, was known by the Greeks as early as the 12th century B.C. in Cyprus. (See "Warfare in Ancient Greece" by Tim Everson, Sutton Pub., United Kingdom, 2004, p. 154-155.) This piece could have served as armour during this period, as Rome had a brief, but quick civil war with four Emperors circa 68-69 A.D. This piece also has a deep mark in the center of the coin that was probably a test cut, rather than a battle mark. The test cut was done in order to test that the metal was 100% bronze, rather than a bronze plated "fourree". This test cut was also probably done when this coin was no longer in circulation, and could have been struck circa 68 A.D., when Nero was replaced by Galba. This coin is an interesting piece that had a dual utility. A custom black plexiglas stand is included, and the piece is easily removable as it is attached with clay. Ex: Private English collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Bronze : Pre AD 1000 item #1357890
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,675.00
This complete and detailed piece is a Roman bronze eagle that dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D. This piece is approximately 2 inches high, by 1.75 inches wide, and is intact with no restoration/repair. This piece is a standing Roman eagle that is seen looking left, and has very realistic features. This piece has very detailed feathers seen on the outstretched wings, and well-defined dotted eyes. This piece also has a beautiful dark green patina, and has a great deal of eye appeal. This ceremonial piece was likely in a private Roman shrine known as a "lararium", and may also have been worshipped by a Roman legionnaire, as the Roman eagle represented Rome itself and was the symbol of the Roman military. This realistic piece also stands on a custom display stand, and can easily be removed. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1980's. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1381808
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,675.00
This scarce piece is a Colima effigy deer vessel that dates to the Protoclassic Period, circa 100 B.C.-250 A.D. This piece is approximately 10.5 inches long, by 6.5 inches high, and is in mint quality condition with no repair and/or restoration. This exceptional Colima vessel depicts a standing deer, with the sides of the body decorated with incised panels that frame two doubled-headed spiders. In addition, there is an incised diamond pattern seen on the frontal shoulders below the raised neck. The head is designed with a pointed nose and peaked ears, and there is a broad spout that forms the tail. This piece has a thin reddish-brown glaze, and some minute tan earthen deposits. This type of vessel is scarce to rare, as it depicts a standing deer, rather than the usual Colima dog types. (For the type see: "Fine Pre-Columbian Art from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Peter G. Wray, Harmer Rooke galleries, Oct. 9, 1984-Jan. 1985, no. 112.) The piece offered here may also represent a sacred "protector type" piece that was made for the after-life. Ex: Private Florida collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Sotheby's Pre-Columbian Art, May 1991, New York, no. 365. ($1,500.00-$2,000.00 estimates, $1,100.00 realized.) Ex: Private Kansas collection, circa 1990's-2000's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including the Sotheby's information that describes this piece as an "effigy deer figurine".) .I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1372929
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,375.00
This attractive Greek Apulian squat lekythos dates circa mid 4th century B.C., and is approximately 5.8 inches high. This piece has vibrant black, white, and dark orange colors, and features a draped woman moving to the right and looking back over her right shoulder. She is also seen holding a decorative plate in her extended right hand, and a wreath in her left hand. There is also a circle seen in the field below her right hand holding the decorative plate, and this may be a workshop control mark. This piece has a single handle attached to the main body of the vessel and the extended neck. There is also a decorative dark orange palmate pattern seen below the handle. The top of the vessel has a flat rim, and this was an aid in the flow of a valuable oily unguent, and enabled the owner of the vessel to apply small amounts of liquid from the rim. Another analogous piece of this type was offered by Sotheby's Antiquities, New York, June 2008, no. 87 ($600.00-$900.00 estimates, $3,438.00 realized.) The piece offered here is intact, save for some minor stress cracks seen in the extended neck, and overall, is a superb example with vibrant colors. Ex: Private New York collection. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Egyptian : Faience : Pre AD 1000 item #1315066
Apolonia Ancient Art
$12,800.00
This attractive piece is an Egyptian faience aryballos that dates to the Late Period, Dynasty XXVI, circa 664-525 B.C. This extremely large and rare piece is approximately 4.25 inches high, by 3.6 inches in diameter. This turquoise blue piece was mold made from faience, and was then hand sculpted which produced the sharp details and design features that are seen on this esoteric piece. This piece also has a spherical body with five registers, and there is a small circular depression seen on the bottom which is surrounded by thirty-two pedals with a detailed double row of lotus leaves seen above. There is also a cross-hatching design that is seen through the middle of the body, with two rows of pedals above. This piece was also designed with a short cylindrical neck, along with an inward-sloping disk rim and a wide attached strap handle. There are some spotty light brown deposits seen in various sections of the outer surfaces, and considerable white calcite deposits that are seen on the inside of the vessel. This piece also has some skillful old repair, as this piece was repaired from three large fragments, and is 100% original. This extremely rare piece may have been produced in Naukratis, a port in the Egyptian delta that was founded by Greeks in the 7th century B.C. Naukratis was an exclusive Greek community organized by Amasis, and many of it's exports found their way into many foreign markets, including the Etruscans who coveted Greek and Egyptian objects. This type of large faience aryballos is also listed as being produced in Rhodes by V. Webb in "Archaic Greek Faience", Warminster, 1978. (See nos. 705 and 743. No. 705 is approximately the same size as the piece offered here. See attached photo.) Another extremely rare example was sold in Cahn Auktionen AG, Basil, Switzerland, Sept. 2010, no. 72. (SF 9,000.00 estimate, SF 12,000.00 realized. The Cahn example is approximately the same size as the piece offered here, has very analogous main body cross-hatching design, upper shoulder pedal design, and was repaired from large fragments as the example offered here. See attached photo.) The piece offered here also stands by itself, and a clear Plexiglas display stand is also included. Ex: Private European collection, circa 1970's. Ex: Christie's Antiquities, New York, June 2003, no. 41. ($8,000.00-$12,000.00 estimates. See attached photo.) Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1364645
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,375.00
This nice piece is a Greek bronze oinochoe that dates to the mid 5th century B.C. This large piece is approximately 9.2 inches high, by 6.5 inches in diameter. This piece is in superb condition and is intact, save for a minor crack repair at the base of the vessel which is normal for a large vessel of this type. This attractive vessel has a trefoil spout, and a graceful upper shoulder that extends up from the rounded flat base. There is a heavy looped handle attached to this vessel, and was cast as one piece. This interesting handle was also designed so that the vessel could be suspended from a cord from the raised loop. The lower end of this heavy vertical handle terminates with a thick "ivy-leaf" that is attached to the side of the vessel. There are also two small openings, on each side of the handle near the upper rim, where the cord was attached, and these small openings could also have supported a hinged lid. This piece was also hand beaten from one solid sheet of bronze over a series of molds. This piece also has a beautiful dark to light green patina, with dark blue highlights, and has a great deal of eye appeal. This piece also easily stands upright, as it has a flat bottom, and the heavy handle was also designed into the upper center of the vessel. (A bronze hydria, dated to circa 450 B.C., with thick "ivy-leaf" terminating handles is seen in the Goulandris Collection in "Ancient Greek Art", Athens, 1996, no. 258. See attached photo.) This scarce vessel is an exceptional example for the type, and is also much rarer than ceramics of this type. Ex: Private Austrian collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Egyptian : Faience : Pre AD 1000 item #1161417
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This attractive piece is an Egyptian faience amulet of a seated Bastet, which dates circa 1100-800 B.C., Late New Kingdom/3rd Intermediate Period. This piece is approximately 2.25 inches high, and is a large example for the type. This mint quality and complete piece is a seated Bastet lion headed goddess that is seen holding a shrine-shaped sistrum, and is a rarer type than what is normally seen, which is the more common openwork hoop-shaped sistrum. The sistrum was a rattling musical instrument that was connected with ceremony, festivity, and merry-making. This sistrum attribute identifies this amulet as being Bastet, rather than the lion headed goddess Sekhmet, which is often the case, and according to Carol Andrews in "Amulets of Ancient Egypt", University of Texas Press, 1994, p. 32: "Of all the mained lion goddesses who were revered for their fierceness Bastet alone was 'transmogrified' into the less terrible cat, although even she often retained a lion-head when depicted as a woman, thus causing much confusion in identification. The female cat was particularly noted for its fecundity and so Bastet was adored as goddess of fertility and, with rather less logic, of festivity and intoxication. This is why, as a cat-headed woman, she carries a menyet collar with aegis-capped counterpoise and rattles a sistrum." In addition, Andrews states on p. 33: "All such pieces must have been worn by women to place them under the patronage of the goddess and perhaps endow them with her fecundity. They were essentially to be worn for life, but could have potency in the Other World." The piece offered here has a suspension hoop seen behind the head, and there is no apparent wear within this hoop which suggests that this attractive piece was votive, and this may also explain it's mint quality condition as well. The seated goddess is seen on an elaborate openwork throne whose sides are formed into the sinuous body of the Egyptian snake god Nehebkau. The facial features of this appealing piece have fine detail, and also have a rather haunting and mysterious look. This rare faience amulet has nice minute spotty dark brown mineral deposits that are seen over a light green/blue glaze, and this piece is in mint condition, with no cracks and/or chips, which are often seen on faience amulets of this large size. The molding of this piece has exceptional detail, and compares to an analogous example of the same type and size seen in Christie's Antiquities, Paris, March 2008, lot no. 115. (7,000.00-10,000.00 Euro estimates, 5,625 Euros realized. Note: This piece has the more common hoop-shaped sistrum, and is from the Charles Gillot collection, circa 1853-1903. See attached photo.) The piece offered here comes with a clear plexiglas display stand, and simply sits on the top surface, and can be easily lifted off. An exceptional large piece that is in mint condition, and is also a rare type. Ex: Robert Rustafjaell collection, circa 1890-1909. Published: "An Egyptian Collection formed by R. de Rustafjaell Bey", by the Ehrich Galleries, New York. Ex: Heckscher Museum of Art, Long Island, New York, deaccessioned circa 2011. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pottery : Pre AD 1000 item #1239393
Apolonia Ancient Art
$2,365.00
This attractive piece is a Vicus culture seated figurine that dates circa 200 B.C.-300 A.D. This piece is approximately 6.9 inches high, and is in mint to superb condition with no repair/restoration. This piece has a pleasing nice deep reddish-brown glaze, and has some minute root marking and some light blue/black spotty mineral deposits. This piece is a stirrup-type vessel, and it has a flat bottom. The legs and arms are seen tucked in close to the seated body, and this figurine seems to exhibit an inner core that is changing from an animal form to a human form, or vice-versa. This piece is classified as a "transformation type" ceramic, and this can especially be seen with the human facial features relative to the almond shaped eyes and well defined nose. The wide mouth appears to exhibit this change as well, as does the dual lobed head which is an anthropomorphic animal feature which is attributed to an animal such as a monkey. This piece is also an excellent example of a ceramic from the Vicus culture of ancient Peru, due to the reasons noted above, and most pieces from this culture seem to exhibit some form of "transformation" from one degree to another. This piece is also "thick walled", and has some weight to the piece. The early Peruvian ceramics from this culture were also fired at about 400 degrees C, thus producing a "thick walled" ceramic, as opposed to the subsequent Peruvian cultures such as the Moche, which produced "thin walled" ceramics which were fired at about 1000 degrees C. This piece is also analogous to an example seen in "Arts Ancient du Perou" by Bernard Villaret, Times Editions Pub., 1978, p. 51. (See attached photo.) This attractive piece has some weight, as one handles this piece, and is in scarce mint condition with a vibrant deep reddish-brown glaze. One of the best recorded examples. Ex: Dr. Ernst J. Fischer collection, Germany, circa 1980's. Ex: Auktion Ketterer 119, Zurich, 1987. Ex: Private German collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including a TL test from Gutachten Lab., 11/23/1984, no. 584912, and EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #944741
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
The beautiful pieces offered here is a matching set of Greek silver earrings, that date circa 6th century B.C. These pieces are made of solid silver, are not plated or have a bronze core, and they have an attractive dark gray patina. These pieces are approximately 1 inch high and .64 inches wide near the base. The upper half narrows into a point, which allowed these earrings to pass through a pierced ear. There is some flex to these pieces even now, and they could easily be worn today. The shape of this type of earring is known as a "boat-shaped type", and they have two additional decorative rosette pattern knobs that are seen on each side. Each of these minute round knobs were individually added, and these earrings were made with a great deal of skill, although they have a simple design. Greek silver jewelry from this time frame, circa 550 B.C., is scarce, as most Greek silver jewelry dates to the later Hellenistic Period, circa 336 B.C. (A Greek silver fibula with analogous workmanship is seen in The Belgrade National Museum and is published in "Balkani" by Tatjana Cvjeticanin, Giovanni Gentili, and Vera Krstic, Silvana Editoriale Pub., 2008, no. 73.) The earrings offered here are intact and have no repair/restoration, and are in exceptional mint condition. An earring stand is included, along with a gift box. Ex: Private German collection. (These pieces have additional documentation for the purchaser.) I certify that these pieces are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Byzantine : Pre AD 1000 item #1102815
Apolonia Ancient Art
$785.00
This attractive piece is a Byzantine bronze cross that has a nice silver inlaid design. This piece dates circa 4th-7th century A.D., and is approximately 1.9 inches high by 1.9 inches high by 1/16th inch thick. This piece has an attractive silver inlaid design which has a detailed "circle-and-line" type design. This piece also has a nice dark green patina with some light green and red surface deposits. There are also five small holes seen in this piece which were likely used to sew this piece into a garment. This piece is in superb condition, and could easily be worn as a pendant today. This piece also comes with a custom black plexiglas display stand, and can easily be removed, as it simply hangs on the stand. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pottery : Pre AD 1000 item #1131587
Apolonia Ancient Art
$4,675.00
This beautiful and vibrant piece is a Greek Apulian lidded mug that dates circa 330 B.C. This piece has been attributed to the Menzies painter, and is approximately 7.5 inches high with the lid. This beautiful piece is also known as a kothon, and this type of vessel normally has a knobbed lid and extended neck, as seen with the piece offered here. This piece is mint quality, with no repair/restoration, and has very vibrant white, yellow, red, and black colors. This piece has a rounded knobbed handle at the top center of the lid, and there are two female heads seen at the top, along with a detailed acanthus pattern between. These female heads are known as a "lady of fashion" portrait, and is thought by many academics to represent Demeter and/or Persephone. To the Greeks the fertility of the ground was closely associated with death, and the seed-corn was buried in the dark during the summer months before the autumnal sowing. The return of life and burial is symbolized in the myth of Persephone's abduction and return, and gave rise to the ritual of the Eleusinian Mysteries, in which the worshippers believed that the restoration of the goddess to the upper world promised the faithful their own resurrection from death. This lidded vessel also probably held a burial offering such as grain, or a product that could have been used by the deceased in the afterlife. This attractive vessel also has a winged Eros that is seen in motion to the right, and is seen holding a box and a tambourine. There is also an ivy leaf pattern seen on the neck of the vessel, along with additional decorative floral elements seen on the main body of the vessel. Overall, this vessel is highly decorated, with many design patterns that cover the entire main body of the vessel, and as such, has been attributed by A.D. Trendall as Type VIII. This piece also has a single "Herakles-knot" type designed handle, and is an exceptional example for the type. This beautiful piece is also from the Michael Waltz collection, and another slightly smaller lidded mug from this same collection is seen with Royal Athena Galleries, New York, no. GMZ02, $4,750.00 estimate. (Another analogous example of nearly the same size is seen in Christies Antiquities, New York, Dec. 2011, no.138. $3,000.00-$5,000.00 estimates, $5,250.00 realized.) The piece offered here is one of the finest examples offered on the market, and is scarce in this mint condition. Ex: Michael Waltz collection, circa 1970's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1365159
Apolonia Ancient Art
$385.00
These eight complete Greek "sling bullets" date to the 5th-4th century B.C., and are approximately 1 to 1.6 inches in length, by .4 to .7 inches in diameter. These pieces all have some light mineral deposits, and have a light dark gray-brown to tan patina. These relatively heavy lead pieces were mold made, and one can easily discern each half of the piece that fitted into the "two-part mold". These pieces were fitted into a hand sling that generated tremendous force and speed as they were released from the sling. These weapons also have an almond shape, as most lead "sling bullets" have, and this shape provided a stable aerodynamic flight. These pieces also have some light marking and minute impact dents that indicate that many of these pieces were likely in battle. These interesting pieces are all different sizes, and are also fitted into a custom display case. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1990's. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that these pieces are authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1226221
Apolonia Ancient Art
$825.00
This Thasos silver tetradrachm coin is mint state (FDC) to superb quality grade (EF+/EF+), and dates circa circa 2nd-1st century B.C. This superb graded piece is approximately 34 mm wide, and weighs 17.1 gms. This attractive piece is well centered and shows on the obverse (Obv.) a young bust of Dionysus, wreathed with grape leaves and bunches. The reverse (Rev.) shows a very muscular nude standing Herakles, holding a club in his right hand, and over his left arm, a cloak made from the skin of the Nemean lion. The impressive standing nude Herakles, is also more defined and muscular than what is normally seen, and this coin is a better example than most of the other examples that have been on the market. The (Rev.) also shows a legend in Greek lettering seen on each side of Herakles and below. The lettering to the right reads "HERAKLES"; and below reads "THASOS", which refers to the island of Thasos where this coin was likely minted. This coin type is also classified as a Celtic imitation of the Thasos types, and this is likely the case for this coin type, but it may be that the majority of these coins were minted by Thasos for trade with the Thracian interior. The pieces with better artistic style are generally recognized as being from the Thasos mint, as the piece offered here, and the piece offered here has great artistic style for the period. Thasos is a Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea off the coast of Thrace, and was colonized by the Phoenicians for its gold mines. The Phoenicians also established a religious cult on the island to their god Melkart, who later came to be identified with the Greek god Herakles when the island was Hellenized circa 650 B.C. The depiction of the Thracian wine god Dionysus was also adopted on the subsequent Thracian coinage as well. In 197 B.C., the Romans defeated Philip V of Macedon at the battle of Cynoscephalae, and thus made Thasos a "free" city state. Pliny the Elder was later to describe Thasos as still being a "free" city state in the 1st century A.D. This coin is better than most examples, regarding the artistic style and the impressive muscular Herakles seen on the reverse, and has traces of mint luster. Ex: Harlan J. Berk, Chicago, Ill., circa 1989. References: Sear 1759. BMC 74. SNG Copenhagen 1046. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1321881
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This attractive ancient Greek coin is a Sikyon silver stater that dates circa 350-330 B.C. This coin is approximately 23 mm wide, weighs 11.8 gms, and is in good very fine/extremely fine condition (VF+/EF). This coin also has a light gray patina, perfect centering, and excellent metal, with some minute roughness seen mostly on the high relief sections of the obverse and reverse. This attractive coin features on the obverse the mythical creature Chimaera, facing left, with the letter "I" seen below the belly of the creature that is seen standing/walking on a ground line. The reverse features a dove flying left, with the letter "N" below the beak; all within a laurel wreath. The Chimaera was a celebrated monster who sprung from the union of Echidna and Typhon, and had three heads; those of a lion, a goat, and a dragon. The Greek hero Bellerophon with the support of Minerva, and the aid of the winged horse Pegasus, attacked and killed the Chimaera in an epic battle. The image of Chimaera, seen on the obverse of this coin, has a goat neck and head rising from it's back, and the head and body of a lion. The city of Sikyon chose this creature as a civic symbol, and is one of the few known images of this creature seen on ancient Greek coinage. This coin type is also highly desirable among collectors of ancient Greek coinage who collect coins that illustrate creatures known from ancient Greek myth. References: BMC 57. SNG Copenhagen 48. Ex: Harlan J. Berk collection, circa 1980's. I certify that this coin is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pottery : Pre AD 1000 item #987545
Apolonia Ancient Art
$3,265.00
This extremely rare piece is a Greek Apulian trefoil oinochoe that shows an expressive theatrical mask, which is seen in profile facing right, and dates circa 380-350 B.C. This piece is classified as a "Type II Oinochoe", otherwise known as a "Chous", and is approximately 4.6 inches high. This attractive piece is also intact, and is in superb to mint quality condition with no repair/restoration or overpaint. This extremely rare piece has also been attributed to the "Truro Painter", and has very vibrant colors, which are a glossy black, light red, and white. There are also some heavy white calcite deposits seen within the vessel, on the edge of the trefoil mouth, and on the bottom base ring. The detailed theatrical mask is seen centered within a light red frame which has a floral design at the bottom, and there are several attractive white dot highlights seen within this light red frame as well. The lively theatrical mask depicted on this piece is a type used by a character in a Greek comedy play known as a "phylax play", and this type of "phylax mask" was designed with bushy black hair, short black beard, open mouth, and copious facial wrinkles. This type of "phylax mask" was defined by Trendall as "Type B", and this type of mask was often produced by the "Truro Painter", circa 380-350 B.C., on Greek Apulian chous vessels of this type. Trendall also stated that the heads of the Truro Painter "often wear white head-bands", and the detailed theatrical "phylax mask" seen on the piece offered here also has a very prominent white head-band. (See A.D. Trendall, "Phlyax Vases", Second Edition, BICS Supplement 20, 1967. Another vessel of this type is seen in the Virginia Museum in Richmond, Virginia, no. 81.53.) The expressive theatrical "phylax mask" seen on the beautiful vessel offered here, and the Virginia Museum vessel noted above, are both designed as a singular depiction, and as such, is a subject type seldom seen on Greek Apulian vessels. In addition, the "phylax mask" seen here on this rare vessel is a sharp detailed example which is seldom seen on the market today. An analogous Apulian chous of this type was offered in Christie's Antiquities, New York, June 2008, no.195. (Approximately 7.5 inches high, $5,000.00-$7,000.00 estimates, $12,500.00 realized. See attached photo.) Ex: Donna Jacobs Gallery, Birmingham, Michigan, circa 1980's. Ex: Robert Novak collection, St. Louis, MO. Ex: Private German collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #590958
Apolonia Ancient Art
$4,265.00
This extremely rare Greek glass Canosan plate dates from the Hellenistic period, circa 4th-3rd century BC. This piece was likely made in Canosa, Apulia, that is in southern Italy, and is a circular cosmetic plate. The vessel is approximately 6.25 inches in diameter by .8 inches high, and is in mint condition with no stress cracks and/or chips. This piece is surprisingly heavy for its size as well, as this piece was cast in a two-piece mold and was then smoothed by grinding and polishing. Cast glass is thicker and denser than glass that was free blown, and is more difficult to produce. With the advent of glass blowing technology that was perfected by the Romans, they were able to mass produce glass vessels in great numbers with a wide range of shapes. The earlier Greek cast glass was limited to mostly plates, bowls, and cups with added handles. There are very few Greek cast vessels in the marketplace today, as most ancient glass seen on the market is Roman blown glass. This piece is the one of the few extremely rare "Canosan" glass vessels that are currently on the market, and there have been only a very limited number of these cast glass vessels that have ever been offered at auction. This beautiful piece has subtle concentric circles that can be seen, and these were created from the grinding/polishing process. This piece is colorless with a light greenish tinge, and this color is the more common color for glass of this type. This color also matches the majority of the ten Canosan vessels that are now in the British Museum and were donated by the executors of Felix Slade in 1959. A shallow dish that is analogous to the piece offered here is from this group, and is seen in "Masterpieces of Glass" by D.B. Harden, British Museum Pub. 1968, p. 31, no.35. The piece offered here has a thick milky white patina that is adhered to the outer surface, and in places where this is missing, the glass has a multi-colored iridescence. There are also traces of minute root marking and mineral deposits. In "Early Ancient Glass", by Frederick Grose, Toledo Museum of Art, page 186 the following is seen: "To date, five hoards of glass vessels have been identified. Three are known to have been found in separate multichambered family tombs at Canosa; two are thought to have come from this locale but lack documentation. In addition, a few isolated examples from single burials can be attributed to the town. Elsewhere in Magna Graecia, vessels of the group have been found in Campania, at Reggio in Calabria, at Naxos and Morgantina on Sicily, and in Etruria. Outside Italy, sites in Greece, Asia Minor, along the Black Sea, and possibly Cyrenaica have also yielded examples. The number of recorded vessels of the group now stands at about sixty, illustrating a dozen main forms and variants, (see Fig.92)". The vessel offered here is of the type illustrated in Figure 92 as noted above, and is a a rarer form for a circular cosmetic plate, as most of the known examples have upturned rims. (For a Greek Hellenistic light green-tinted cast bowl of the same shape as the piece offered here, although it has a ring base at the bottom and is approximately 4.2 inches in diameter, see: Sotheby's Antiquities, New York, June 2003, no. 152. $6,000.00-$9,000.00 estimates.) If you are a collector of ancient glass, this may be one of the few opportunities to own an extremely rare Canosan glass vessel from this group and of this type. Ex: Hadji Soleimani collection, London, circa 1980's-2000's. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Stone : Pre AD 1000 item #1325875
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,265.00
This complete piece is made of 22 tubular jade beads, along with a jade "Celt-God" pendant, which is also known as an "Ax-God" pendant. The beads strung together are approximately 22 inches long, and the "Celt-God" pendant is approximately 4 inches high by 1 inches wide near the base. This piece dates circa 200-500 A.D., and it was produced in northern Costa Rica, in an area known as the Atlantic Watershed region. The beads and pendant were "bow-drilled", with a hole created from drilling at each end. The beads are also a combination of different types of jade and jade-type stones, with some darker in color than others. The pendant shows "line-cut" design and is likely an anthropomorphic human image. One can see design "line-cut" work that looks like an open mouth and head at the top of the pendant. The back side is flat, and the "line-cut" design is seen on the concave front side. There is also minute mineral deposits and root marking seen on the pendant and most of the beads, and most, if not all of the beads appear to be ancient, and have mineral deposits and patina. These pendants had magical properties, and were worn as personal adornments which also conveyed that status and rank of the owner. The "Celt-God" pendant type was first developed by the Olmec circa 1200-1000 B.C., and this type of object was also votive. This type of object is also found in many pre-Columbian cultures in Mexico and Guatemala. This type of jade object is also explained in detail by Frederick Lange in "Pre-Columbian Jade", University of Utah Press, 1993. This piece can also be worn as is, and can also be displayed in the included custom display box. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1304124
Apolonia Ancient Art
Sold
This interesting piece is a silver Greco-European "spectacle fibula" that dates to the Geometric Period, circa 8th-7th century B.C. This piece is approximately 2.4 inches long, by 1.4 inches high, and is intact with no repair/restoration. This piece was made from one hammered strand of silver, and was made by creating a wire spiral that begins and ends at the center of each spiral. This piece is also very solid, as the diameter of the silver strand is about 1/16 inch on the average. The area between both spirals forms a clip that likely held rolls of hair in place, so this piece served as a functional, as well as a decorative type of piece. This piece has an attractive light gray patina, along with some minute spotty dark green mineral deposits seen mostly on "Side B" of the piece. (An analogous example was offered in Bonham's Antiquities, London, Oct. 2012, no. 218, 500-600 Pound estimates.) Silver examples of this type are relatively scarce on the market, especially in the intact condition offered here. This piece hangs on a custom display stand, and can easily be removed. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Private CA. collection. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1353952
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,465.00
This extremely rare coin is a Greek silver drachm from the Epirote Republic, and dates circa 234-168 B.C. This coin is in good extremely fine/extremely fine (EF+/EF) condition, weighs 5.0 grams, and is approximately 21mm in diameter. This coin has on the obverse: a detailed and laureate bust of Zeus facing left, a monogram at the lower front of the bust, and a Greek legend below and behind. The reverse has: a standing eagle on a thunderbolt facing left, with the legend ADEI before, and PUTAN behind, all within a laurel wreath that is seen framing the border. The legend seen on the obverse is extremely rare, and may refer to the magistrate that minted the coin and/or the name of the current ruler of the Epirote Republic. This coin may also be the only known recorded example with this obverse legend. The reverse legend refers to the Epirote Republic itself. The artistic style of the Zeus bust also has an extremely high degree of art, and is a better style that what is usually seen on the scarce coinage of this type. Another example of this coin type, without the obverse legend and the Zeus bust facing right, was sold by Numismatica Ars Classica in Zurich, Switzerland for 1,300 SF. The coin offered here is not only an extremely rare type, but is also a superb grade (good extremely fine). References: Franke, Epirus, 32ff (var.); SNG Cop 114. Ex: Harlan J. Berk collection, Chicago, Ill., circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1382661
Apolonia Ancient Art
$825.00
This piece is a Greek terracotta applique of a god, and dates to the late Hellenistic Period, circa 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D. This attractive piece is approximately 3.25 inches high, by 2.25 inches wide, and is a complete example that was mounted on the wall of a ceramic or a handle. On the custom Plexiglas display stand, this piece has a total height of approximately 6 inches high. The wall of the ceramic and/or handle is seen on the backside of the piece, and this piece was mold made, and then was subsequently applied to the vessel. This complete piece has no restoration and/or repair, and has some minute earthen deposits. This powerful piece is a nice applique portrait of a god who is likely a young Herakles, as he is seen wearing a lion's skin headdress, has upturned curled hair, and a young face. The portrait may also double for a young Alexander the Great, as there are many representations from antiquity of Alexander that are of this type. Ex: Private Austrian collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1374530
Apolonia Ancient Art
$825.00
This mint quality piece is a Roman glass patella cup that dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D., and is approximately 4.5 inches in diameter, by 1.5 inches high. This beautiful dark green glass piece is mint quality, has a thick honey brown patina seen mostly on the outer surfaces, and an iridescent silvery milky-white patina seen mostly on the inner surfaces. There is also some attractive minute root marking and some dark black mineral deposits seen within the thick encrusted surface patina. This piece has an applied ring base, a folded ring running around the rim, a raised inner base, and a pontil-mark on the bottom. This piece is also thin walled, and is very light in weight for it's size, and as such, is a rare example for the type. This piece is known as a "patella cup" due to it's design, and is one of the best examples for the type with it's exquisite patina. For an analogous example see: John Hayes, "Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum", Toronto, 1975, no. 196, pl. 171. Ex: Private New York collection. Ex: Fortuna Fine Arts, New York, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pottery : Pre AD 1000 item #824649
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,275.00
This interesting piece is from the Jama-Coaque culture that lived in the tropical forest coast region of northern Ecuador near the Esmeraldas River. This area is also the region where the Spaniards first encountered the native South Americans. The piece offered here is approximately 10 inches high, dates circa 500 B.C.-500 A.D., and is intact, save for some missing coffee bean ends seen on the headdress and a very small section of the headdress behind the right ear, and this may have been done as this piece was a burial offering. These breaks appear to be very old, as there is wear in the break areas with burial deposits, and this may have been done to break the "mana" and/or magic of the piece for burial. The seated figurine may be a shaman that is seen wearing a headdress, shirt, earrings, and nose ring that are decorated with coffee bean symbols. He also has coffee bean designed eyes and is seen holding a lime pot in his right hand and in his left, a coca pod. (For the type see: "Pre-Columbian Art" by Jose Alcina Franch, Abrams Pub., New York, 1983, no. 595.) There are traces of painted designs seen on the lower legs, headdress, and skirt. This piece has spotty black mineral deposits and some minute root marking. An example and type that is now scarce on the market. Ex: Private Arizona collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1388383
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,265.00
This attractive Greek terracotta dates to the 4th century B.C., and is approximately 3.75 inches high. This large bust is intact to just below the jaw line where it is broken at the neck, and is a bust of a goddess such as Demeter. This esoteric bust has exceptional artistic style, as the portriat is of a more mature goddess with a vibrant face with a slight smile. She is also seen wearing a diadem with perhaps agricultural stalks that are seen within the diadem. Demeter was the mother of Persephone who was responsible for the change of the seasons, and the "rebirth" of crops during the year. This attractive large bust is also in it's natural "as found" condition, and has some minor earthen and mineral deposits. An exceptional example with an intact face and a high degree of eye appeal. This piece is also mounted on a custom steel and Plexiglas display stand with a total height of approximately 5.3 inches. Ex: Munzen and Medaillen AG Basel, Switzerland, circa 1960's. Ex: Private German collection, circa 2000's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pottery : Pre AD 1000 item #1022403
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,265.00
This interesting piece is an Olmecoid standing figurine that dates circa 600-300 B.C. This piece is approximately 6 inches high, is a light tan clay, and has a thin light tan to clear polychrome glaze. This piece is intact, and has a solid body and a mold made hollow head, which was attached in antiquity. This figure is seen with both arms at the side, and the hands are positioned at the front holding a paunchy stomach, which indicates that this piece is a fertility and/or mother goddess. In addition, the lower torso is "pear" shaped and has wide hips. This piece also has many classic Olmec artistic style features such as the jaguar-like ears, eyes, and mouth. These features are a combination of human and animal, which are classified as "transformation art", which is a principle stylistic hallmark of Olmec art from central Mexico. This type of Middle Preclassic period fertility figurine has been found in Izapa (Mexico), Kaminaljuyu (Guatemala), and Chalchuapa (El Salvador); and has also been classified as the "Mamom" artistic style, which was produced by a "pre-Mayan" and/or Mayan culture. (For the "Mamom" artistic style, see "Maya, Treasures of an Ancient Civilization", Harry Abrams, Inc. Pub., New York, 1985, pp. 74-75.) This piece is scarce in this intact condition, as most pieces of this type are found broken, and is a much better example than what is normally seen on the market. This piece can also stand by itself. This piece comes with a custom stand, and can easily be removed. Ex: Julio Atalah collection, circa 1940-1967. Ex: Danny Hall collection, Houston, TX., circa 1967-2005. Ex: Saida Cebero collection, Sugarland, TX., circa 2005-2009. Ex: Private Florida collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this pice is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1369176
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,265.00
This intact and interesting piece is a Chancay mother and child textile doll that dates circa 1300-1532 A.D. This appealing piece is approximately 12 inches high, and is made from several types of Chancay textiles made from alpaca wool and cotton. The Chancay culture was centered on the central coast of Peru, and produced some of the finest textiles relative to all of the Andean pre-Columbian cultures. Their blending of textiles with feathers is also readily evident with this piece, as there are colorful dark orange feathers that are woven into the dress of the standing woman. The face of this standing woman is also very likely, and conveys a realistic expression with it's woven nose, eyes, and mouth. This mint quality piece also has several types of textiles that are wrapped and formed around a reed superstructure, and there are extremely detailed woven red feet and hands that resemble a "stick figurine", with extended fingers and toes. There are also individual strands of textiles that represent long hair seen on both the mother and child. The child is seen being carried at the right-hand chest of the woman, and likely represents a woman and her child in the afterlife. The woman's outer dress garment is also very detailed, and has additional textile decorative elements in addition to the attached feathers. The outer garments of this figurine were also custom made, and are not simple wraps of textile scraps, as is usually seen on textile figures of this type. These textile dolls and/or puppets were votive, and promoted family and fertility in the afterlife. One of the best recorded examples, and compete figurines of this type with custom garments are scarce in the market, and are rarely seen in this intact mint condition. (For the type see: "Pre-Columbian Art of South America" by Alan Lapiner, Abrams Pub., New York, 1976, nos. 678 and 679. See attached photo.) A custom Plexiglas case is included that protects this piece from environmental elements and insects such as moths. Ex: Dr. Gunther Marschall collection, Hamburg, Germany, circa 1960's. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition: