Apolonia Ancient Art offers ancient Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Pre-Columbian works of art Apolonia Ancient Art
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #599095
Apolonia Ancient Art
$825.00
This superb Roman bronze piece is an applique with the image of Silenus. This piece dates circa 1st century B.C.-1st century A.D., and is in the form of a facing head, with an attached peg that extends about 1.5 inches from the back side of the applique. This piece was probably mounted in an object such as a furniture piece, or a bronze and wooden door, or a composite work or arms such as a Roman shield. A piece with this type of design, with the extended peg, could have fit in a number of objects. The Sileni were native not to Greece, but to Phrygia in Roman Asia, and personified the genii of springs and rivers. Unlike the Satyrs who derive chiefly from the he-goat, the Sileni derive rather from the horse, whose tail hooves, and even ears they possess. This piece clearly shows the horse ears and shows Silenus as a fat old man, snub-nosed, always drunk, who was in the retinue of Dionysus. Silenus was the tutor of Dionysus and had helped him form his character, and the bust seen here is a very powerful and intense image of Silenus. The diameter of this piece is approximately 1.4 inches and the length is approximately 2 inches. This piece has a dark green patina with red highlights and the detail is superb. There are also some heavy dark green mineral deposits seen on the extended peg. This piece is mounted with clay on a custom black/plexiglas base and can easily be removed. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1363783
Apolonia Ancient Art
$365.00
This superb Greek bronze coin is an (AE 17) that is from the city of Mesembria, and dates circa 4th-3rd century B.C. This coin is approximately 17mm in diameter, weighs 5.8 grams, and is in superb condition (EF+/EF+). This coin also has a beautiful dark green patina, perfect centering, excellent metal, and high relief. The obverse (Obv.) of this coin has an excellent image of a Greek "Attic type" helmet, which was the favorite helmet type of elite cavalry units forged by Alexander the Great. This coin also has perfect centering, and the full crest of the helmet is seen on the flan, which is not often completely seen relative to this coin type. The reverse (Rev.) features an Celtic war shield, and has Greek lettering above and below, which also names the city Mesembria. This lettering is also complete, as this coin has perfect centering, and is not often seen on this coin type. The city of Mesembria was a Greek colony in Thrace on the Black Sea coast, and traded in slaves, and agricultural products. This coin is an exceptional example, is one of the better recorded examples with perfect centering, and has details not often seen both on the obverse and reverse. References: SNG BM 276. Ex: Harlan J. Berk collection, Chicago, Ill., circa 1990's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this coin is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1370697
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This mint quality Greek Illyrian helmet dates circa 6th century B.C., and is approximately 12 inches high, from the top of the crest box to the tip of the cheek pieces, and it is a full size example. This beautiful piece has been classified in "Antike Helm", Lipperheide and Antikenmuseums Collections, Mainz, Germany, 1988, pp. 59-64, as being "Type II, Var.B". This piece is in flawless, mint condition, and has no repair/restoration, and is one of the best examples on the global market. This piece has slightly elongated cheek pieces, a detailed punched decorative dotted band that runs around the outer perimeter edge, and a well-defined crest box. This piece was hand beaten from one sheet of bronze, and the crest box was added into the construction of the helmet, not only to define an attachment area for the crest which was likely made from bird quills, but also to give extra strength to the main body of the piece. The added crest box also was designed to protect the warrior from overhead blows. There is also a slightly extended neck guard which is finely made as well. This exceptional example also has some very minor horizontal scraps and nicks which is also an indication that this piece was in battle. This piece has a compact and attractive design, and is one of the top examples for the type. In addition, this piece has an exceptional dark green patina with dark blue highlights which lends this piece a great deal of eye appeal. The patina seen on this attractive piece is also in "as found" condition, and this helmet has not been over cleaned as most examples. This piece also comes with a custom metal display stand. Ex Axel Guttmann collection, Inventory no. 517, Berlin, Germany, circa 1980's. Ex: Private Dallas, Texas collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Stone : Pre AD 1000 item #1364438
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This extremely rare ceremonial stone ball is attributed to the Taino culture, and dates circa 1100-1250 A.D. This piece is approximately 5.3 inches in diameter, and is a perfect sphere. This piece is a hard sandstone that is native to the Caribbean region where the Taino culture dwelled, and there also have been many ceremonial ball-courts found in Puerto Rico, where the Mesoamerican ballgame was played with a rubber ball. The piece offered here may have been from this region of the Caribbean as well. This interesting piece features many geometric designs that were minutely hand pecked into the stone, and the designs appear to be a mirror image of one another when one rotates the stone. This piece was definitely a "votive-type" piece, and may also have been a trophy for the ball-game itself. The exact ceremonial nature of this piece is unknown, but what is known, is that this piece was definitely connected to the ceremonial ball-game. This game was also believed to have been played by only bumping the ball with the elbows and torso. This piece also has some minute dark black and gray mineral deposits, and some slight wear in various sections of the piece. This piece also comes with a Plexiglas display ring. Ex: Throckmorton Fine Art, New York, circa 1990's. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1373047
Apolonia Ancient Art
$725.00
This scarce Roman bronze lamp dates circa 2nd-3rd century A.D., and is approximately 2.5 inches long, by 1.1 inches high. This piece is complete, has no breaks and/or chips, and is in mint "as found" condition. This piece has two openings, one in the top center for filling oil, and the other at the end of the vessel that would hold the wick. The other end of the vessel has an attachment hoop for a chain, or a cord, and could have been hung as a votive offering pendant. This piece also has a flat bottom and easily stands by itself. This piece not only was likely made as a votive offering, but it was also likely functional as well. This piece has a beautiful dark green patina with dark red highlights, and has some heavy dark brown mineral deposits on the inside of the vessel. This piece comes with a custom Plexiglas display stand. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1389023
Apolonia Ancient Art
$6,875.00
This powerful piece is a seated Colima warrior that dates to the Protoclassic Period, circa 100 B.C.-250 A.D., and is approximately 14 inches high. This reddish-brown seated warrior has long youthful limbs, and is seen with the raised right arm balanced on his knee. His cupped right hand perhaps once held an implement, or a lance made from perishable material. This warrior also appears to be in a trance, and has a rounded face with closed "coffee-bean" style eyes. He is also seen wearing a pendant tied around the neck, a headdress/helmet with a small "feline headed" medallion, and raised inlay stone tattoos on the shoulders. The left side of his nude torso is also decorated with a band of black geometric "line-design" tattoos. This piece has very realistic body molding seen on the back side of the vessel, and has a very angular nose. His ears are also pierced for earrings, and overall, this warrior exudes a regal like appearance. This piece was offered for the deceased, and was likely a "protector-type" figurine. The form of this Colima piece is also rare, and the figurine offered here is a rare example that is also known as the "Coahuayana Valley" type. This piece is also intact with no apparent repair and/or restoration, and has some spotty and minute black mineral deposits. A superb large example with a high degree of eye appeal. For the type see: R. Townsend, "Ancient West Mexico, Art and Archaeology of the Unknown Past", The Art Institute of Chicago, 1998. Ex: Sotheby's Parke Bernet, Pre-Columbian Art, New York, Dec. 1981, no. 165. ($2,200.00 realized.) Ex: Sotheby's Pre-Columbian Art, Nov. 2004, no. 268. ($4000.00-$6,000.00 estimates). Ex: Private Kansas collection, circa 2000's. I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Traditional Collectibles : Books : Contemporary item #817549
Apolonia Ancient Art
Price as ordered. Kindle version available at: http://www.amazon.com!
If you are a neophyte or an advanced collector of ancient art, "Into the Antiquities Trade" by Kevin R. Cheek is a valuable resource and a "must read" for every collector. This book defines and explains the political situation relative to the trade, as seen in the chapter "Who's Who", and clarifies the "pro" and "con" positions that the three different camps take regading the trade. This book also offers the collector a refreshing viewpoint that "there is no better preserver of ancient art than the private collector". This book also has a chapter "Some Things to Look For" that is useful for many collectors, especially when they are considering a purchase of ancient art. In addition, this chapter has information relative to the testing of ancient works of art for authenticity, and the detection of forgeries. This chapter also helps to explain market pricing, and the use of descriptions/terms such as "repair", "as found", and "restoration". The Kindle version can be found at: www.amazon.com! This book is also offered in both soft and hard cover, and can be ordered online at: http://www.amazon.com. This book can also be ordered at your local bookstore, including additional bookstores found through Google. ISBN Hardcover: 1-4134-3194-1. ISBN Softcover: 1-4134-3193-3. You may also order a signed copy direct from the author, Kevin R. Cheek, by calling 305-785-5315 or 303-321-7351, or email: apoloniaco@aol.com.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1333494
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This little gem is a Greek Attic black-glazed kantharos that dates circa 350-325 B.C. This piece is approximately 2.4 inches high, by 4.6 inches wide from handle to handle. This charming piece is intact, and is in mint quality condition with no repair/restoration. The lustrous black glaze is even around the vessel, and is seen both on the inner and outer surfaces. This piece has a "flat handled" design, and these handles have spurred edges, a looping design, and connect to the main body of the vessel. This piece sits on a torus foot, and there is no reserve underneath, as this piece is entirely covered in a black glaze. This dainty piece was also designed to imitate silver vessels of this type. This type of Attic black-glazed ceramic is also scarce to rare on the market, as it is a rare form. This piece has some spotty white calcite deposits, and a multi-colored iridescent patina. (Another analogous vessel of this type was offered by Charles Ede Limited, London, 2010, Catalog 182, no. 35 for 900.00 pounds.) For the type see, B. Sparkes and L. Talcott, "The Athenian Agora, Vol. XII, Black and Plain Pottery", Princeton, 1970, no. 701, fig. 7. Ex: Private U.K collection, circa 1990's. Ex: Phoenix Ancient Art, Geneva and New York, Inv. #091613-05. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1402930
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,275.00
This extremely rare piece is a Mycenaean/Minoan bronze goddess figurine that dates to the LH III Period, circa 1400-1100 B.C. This piece is approximately 1.5 inches high, by .68 inches wide at the fluted base, and is a normal size relative to the known recorded examples. This attractive figurine has a tubular shape, and was cast as one piece. The body is also hollow, and there is an opening seen at the top, along with a "v-shaped" opening at the front of the body. This opening is where the neck/head was attached, and this was likely made from a perishable material such as wood or bone. There are also incised lines seen just below the raised arms at the shoulder area, and this decorative "linear line design" is also seen on many examples of early Greek art from the Late Bronze Age, circa 1300 B.C., down to the Geometric Period, circa 750 B.C. These extremely rare bronze figurines may have been a grave offering, and/or could have been an offering that depicted significant rituals that were associated with rites of passage that involved the departed. The figurine offered here could also have been part of a group of several figures of this type, that together, could have portrayed a ritual as noted above. This theory was developed by Daniela Lefevre-Novaro, and her theory was supported by the figural terracotta models that were found in the Minoan Kamilari burial complex in Kamilari, Crete. (See "Coming of Age in Ancient Greece", by Jenifer Neils and John Oakley, Yale University Press, 2003, pp. 40-43.) The arms of the figurine offered here are also seen extended into the air, and this is an ancient Greek sign of "blessing" and "mourning" death, and this posture is depicted on ancient Greek art from as early as the Late Bronze Age, circa 13th century B.C. The type of figurine offered here is also thought to have originated in Crete, and has also been identified as being a "mother goddess" connected to fertility. (See "Ancient Cyprus" by Vassos Karageorghis, 1981, p. 125.) In summary, this extremely rare piece is likely a goddess figurine that represented several of the aspects noted above, and was either a votive grave offering, or an offering in a shrine. This esoteric bronze goddess figurine is intact, has no repair and/or restoration, and easily stands by itself. This piece also has a beautiful light brown to dark green patina with some dark blue/green highlights, and some spotty dark green mineral deposits. This piece also sits on a custom display stand, and can easily lift off. Ex: Private Austrian collection, circa 1980's-2000's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Indian Subcontinent : India : Pre AD 1000 item #661705
Apolonia Ancient Art
$3,675.00
This superb red sandstone fragment is from central India and dates to the Post-Gupta period, circa 8th-9th Century A.D. This piece is approximately 16 inches high and is mounted on a custom metal stand. This piece may originally have been part of a stele and/or a temple. There is a section on the right side of this piece that is flat, and this side may have been the inner part of a doorway. There are also four smiling Nagas seen on this piece with intertwined serpent tails and cobra hoods above their heads. Their raised clasped hands are seen in the Anjali Mudra position, and they are positioned at an angle so that they view the person that would pass through the doorway. There is also an elaborate foliage pattern seen on the edge, and the overall design of this piece is very esoteric. There is an analogous piece that is seen in the Mr. and Mrs. Harold P. Ullman Collection and is published in "Art of the Indian Subcontinent From Los Angeles Collections", Ward Ritchie Press, 1968. This piece may be a part of the same building and/or stele, as this piece also forms part of a door jam. This piece, and the piece offered here, are both extremely fine examples of ancient Indian art and are in superb condition with clear detailed carving. These carvings are highly spiritual, and were intended to protect the viewer, as this was the reason for the depiction of the Nagas. A nice heavy piece with a high degree of spiritual feeling. Ex: Sotheby's New York, "Indian, Himalayan, and Southeast Asian Art", March, 1990. Ex: Private Los Angeles collection. (Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Roman : Pre AD 1000 item #1381237
Apolonia Ancient Art
$875.00
This piece is an intact Romano-Egyptian terracotta fish that dates to the Roman Period, circa 30 B.C.-324 A.D. This piece is approximately 7 inches long, by 3.25 inches high, and is a complete and intact example. This piece was made with a dark red-tan clay, and was mold made from two halves. This attractive piece also some thick gray-white deposits, which was also made from it's original white gesso that coated the entire piece. This piece has a curved body that creates movement for the viewer, and there is an open mouth, a small vent hole under the body, and detailed fins. This piece was also likely a votive object that provided sustenance for the departed in the after-life, and this type of piece is also relatively scarce on the market. This piece also likely depicts a Nile perch, which was a popular fish in antiquity. This piece also sits on a custom display stand. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1980's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Bronze : Pre AD 1000 item #1119822
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,265.00
This cute piece is a Greco-Roman bronze that is in the form of a bull's head, and dates to the Late Hellenistic Period, circa 2nd century B.C.- 1st century A.D. This piece is approximately 1.5 inches high by 2 inches wide, and weighs approximately 122.5 gms. This piece is a weight that was designed for a steelyard weight scale, which was a bar that was suspended by a chain that acted as a swivel, and this bar had a chain suspended tray at each end. The scarce weight offered here was simply placed on one of the trays, as this weight was designed with a flat bottom and this piece stands upright. This piece also has a hole that runs through the middle of the neck, and a bar/chain could have also suspended this weight on the steelyard scale bar as well. This attractive piece has floppy ears, almond shaped eyes, and cropped horns. The horns could have also been cropped in antiquity in order to conform this weight to a specific weight of 122.5 gms. This weight also conforms to seven (7) Greek Macedonian tetradrachms (Alexander the Great) with a weight norm of 17.36 gms. This piece also has a beautiful dark blue-green patina, with some dark blue and light brown surface deposits, which lends this attractive piece a high degree of eye appeal. This piece sits on a custom plexiglas display stand that is also included. Ex: Joel Malter collection, Los Angeles, CA., circa 1980's. Ex: Private CA. collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1367689
Apolonia Ancient Art
$1,265.00
This attractive piece is a Paracas bowl that dates to the Chavinoid Period Paracas, circa 1000-600 B.C., and is approximately 6.8 inches in diameter, by 3.25 inches high. This piece is among the earliest ceramics that were produced by any Andean pre-Columbian culture, and it has very detailed incised geometric "line-designed" motifs. This light to dark brown glazed piece has added dark red highlights, and this dark red color is seen within an incised band that runs around the piece. This band has two incised geometric feline masks seen nearly on opposite sides of the bowl, and between, there are defined boxes that have an incised "hand-design" symbol within each box. The geometric feline masks are seen in a two-dimensional manner, with raised noses from the surface of the bowl, and incised fangs extending above and below a horizontal mouth. The overall design illustrates a very powerful sacred image that also appears to protect the contents of the bowl. Bowls of this type may also have been produced for ritual purposes and/or offerings. This piece is intact, save for a small pie-shaped shard that was repaired back into the main body of the piece. This piece also has some attractive root marking, and the glaze has a very fine even high gloss finish. There is also some dark brown burnishing seen on the bottom surface of the bowl that also adds to the eye appeal of this piece. (Another analogous piece was offered in Sotheby's "Pre-Columbian Art", New York, June 1999, no. 212. $1,200-$1,500.00 estimates, $1,840.00 realized. See attached photo.) Ex: Dr. Gunther Marschall collection, Hamburg, Germany, circa 1960's. Ex: Private German collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Egyptian : Pre AD 1000 item #1380004
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This attractive piece is an Egyptian bronze torso of Osiris that dates to the Late Period, circa 713-332 B.C. This piece is approximately 2.9 inches high, by 1.3 wide from shoulder to shoulder, and is the upper torso of a standing or seated Osiris. This Osiris is seen wearing an Atef-crown with a detailed and protective raised cobra seen above the forehead, along with an extended false beard. This figurine is also depicted with a mummified form, with the arms folded tightly over his chest, and is seen grasping the regal crook and flail insignia. The face is also very esoteric, and has very fine artistic style with realistic features. The hollow eyes may also have held an inlay as well. This piece has a beautiful dark green patina with red highlights, and is a near complete upper torso, save for a small section of both of the upper part of the feathered crown attachments. This piece has exceptional detail with esoteric features, and is a better example than what is normally seen in the market. This piece is also mounted on a custom display stand. Ex: Kathe Hartmann collection, Germany, circa 1950's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Pre AD 1000 item #1402052
Apolonia Ancient Art
$465.00
This piece is a scarce Etruscan black glazed-ware kernos that dates circa 5th-4rd century B.C., and is approximately 1.9 inches high, by 3.1 inches wide. This interesting vessel has three raised interconnected containers that all have a base ring and a flared rim. There is a suspension ring seen at the center, and the black glaze is seen both on the inner and outer surfaces of the vessel. This type of vessel is known as a "Kernos" vessel, meaning "a vase for multiple offerings", and was used in religious ceremonies such as the Eleusinian Mysteries. These sacred vessels were made to contain ritual ingredients such as wheat, barley, honey, and wine. The "Duenos Inscription", one of the earliest known "Old Latin" texts, dated to the 7th-5th century B.C., was also found inscribed around a small Etruscan "kernos" vessel as the type offered here. (See Arthur Gordon, "Notes on the Duenos-Vase Inscription in Berlin", California Studies in Classical Antiquity, Vol. 8, 1975, pp. 53-72.) These sacred religious vessels were also used in the cults of Demeter and Cybele, as this type of vessel was specifically made for religious ceremonies. This scarce and intact vessel has no repair and/or restoration, some spotty light brown mineral deposits, some minor light brown burnishing, minor root marking, and is a superb little vessel for the type. Ex: Dr. Gunther Marschall collection, Hamburg, Germany, circa 1960's-1970's. Ex: Private German collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Ancient World : Greek : Pre AD 1000 item #1328373
Apolonia Ancient Art
$565.00
This complete Greek bronze is a bronze oinochoe pendant and dates to the Geometric Period, circa 8th-7th century B.C. This piece is approximately 2 inches high, and is a large example for the type. This piece was a "votive" type piece and was used as an offering at a temple or an oracle site such as Delphi or Dodona. This piece is in the form of an oinochoe which was used primarily for pouring wine, and as a sacred offering, this piece may have contained a wine offering as well. This piece has an attached strap type handle, and was cast as one piece. The interior is also hollow, and is not a solid example. There are also incised lines that run around the vessel, and these linear lines are a hallmark design feature for Greek bronzes from the Geometric Period. This solid cast piece is also intact, and has no repair/restoration. This piece has a dark black/brown patina, and there are spotty dark brown mineral deposits seen on the outer and inner surfaces. This piece also sits on a custom display stand, and can easily be removed as it is mounted with clay. An interesting piece, as well as an early Greek bronze. Ex: Harlan Berk collection, circa 1980's. Ex: Private New York collection. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre 1492 item #1367435
Apolonia Ancient Art
$865.00
This lovely Aztec/Mixtec tripod dates to the Late Postclassic Period, circa 1000-1450 A.D., and is approximately 4.2 inches high, with a diameter at the rim of 5.5 inches. This piece is intact, with no noticeable repair/restoration, and has a light polychrome slip in black, cream, and light red colors. This piece is a tripod bowl with flat plank extended legs that also extend past the outer diameter of the bowl, and because this design, this piece is very stable sitting on a flat surface. This piece also has an attractive black and red "line-designed" geometric pattern that runs around the outer edge of the bowl, and are likely spiritual in nature. In addition, there are raised "line-designed" symbols seen on the inner surface of the bowl, and these symbols are likely sacred as well. These symbols are also completely intact, and this is rare for vessels such as this, as the raised lines are often broken and have missing sections. This piece was also produced by the Mixteca people for the Aztec nobility who preferred these vessels for their food service vessels. It's also unknown whether these vessels were used to grind or abrade a foodstuff or other organic substance, or weather they served a solely ritual, service function. An interesting intact vessel that is becoming scarce in today's market. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1960's. Ex: Dr. Gunther Marschall collection, Hamburg, Germany, circa 1970's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Customs Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition:
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Americas : Pre Columbian : Pre AD 1000 item #1398950
Apolonia Ancient Art
$875.00
This esoteric green hard stone piece is a Valdivia-Chorrera hacha that dates circa 1500-600 B.C., and is approximately 5.85 inches long, by 4 inches wide, by 1.7 inches thick. This piece was produced by the Valdivia-Chorrera culture that lived in modern day Ecuador, and was one of the earliest pre-Columbian cultures of South America. This piece is a votive type object and is shaped as a battle ax, and is a type that is also referred to as a "hacha". This piece was smoothed and polished into the refined form that we see today, and this process was very labor intensive. The surfaces of this piece are very refined, and one can easily see the veins and multi-colored inclusions which enhances it's sacred "raison d'etre". This piece is also a hard serpentine type stone, and it's dark green color was highly prized among many pre-Columbian cultures. A near identical example was offered at Christie's, Paris, Art Pre-Columbian: Collection Felix Et Heidi Stoll ET A Divers Amateurs, April, 2019, no. 8. (1,000.00-1,500.00 Euro estimates. 1,000.00 Euro realized. See attached photo.) Ex: Dr. Gunther Marschall collection, Hamburg, Germany, circa 1960's. Ex: Private German collection, circa 1970's.-2000's. (Note: Additional documentation is available to the purchaser, including EU Export and US Import documentation.) I certify that this piece is authentic as to date, culture, and condition: